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1871-1914.  The Long (19 th ) Century  II. Yeats’s Interactions with the 1890s  Fin de siècle ( 世紀末現象 )  French: "end of the century"  Generally.

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Presentation on theme: "1871-1914.  The Long (19 th ) Century  II. Yeats’s Interactions with the 1890s  Fin de siècle ( 世紀末現象 )  French: "end of the century"  Generally."— Presentation transcript:

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2  The Long (19 th ) Century

3  II. Yeats’s Interactions with the 1890s  Fin de siècle ( 世紀末現象 )  French: "end of the century"  Generally refers to the years 1880 to 1914 in Europe  Connotations: (1)Decadence, typical for the last years of a culturally vibrant period (2)Anticipation about or despair facing the impending change, generally expected when a century or time period draws to a close

4   Nation state created a common framework in European politics  Political parties dominate politics  Increased suffrage and literacy in western and central Europe during the late nineteenth century resulted in higher expectation and demands among the people for government to be responsible for their needs Major Themes

5   Participation of the masses in the governing of European Nations  Varied among the different European nations  Ordinary people felt increasing loyalty to their governments  Suffrage  Welfare state emerges The Age of Mass Politics

6  Main Points  Era of significant material prosperity and progress  Second Industrial Revolution reinforces faith in materialism  Mass Society emerges with this broad urban, industrial and economic growth  Era of increased democracy and the triumph of liberalism  New ideas of mass politics, propaganda and mass press

7   Europe saw itself as “civilized”  Material standards  Food  Housing  Sanitation  Transport and communication  Values  Science over superstition  Slavery  The “Zones of Civilization”

8   Stabilization of the population  Growth of cities and urban life  Migration from Europe

9 Population Growth in Europe,

10  New Products, New Markets Marconi ’ s radio (1901); Daimler ’ s internal combustion engine in the first motorcycle (1885)

11  Industrial Regions of Europe by 1914

12  Organizing the Working Class  Growing numbers of workers – they wanted their voices heard and developed labor unions and political parties  Socialist Parties in Germany  German Social Democratic Party (SPD) 1875 – most prominent socialist party – why in Germany ?  Liebknecht and Bebel – Marxist rhetoric  Socialist Parties in France  Variety of socialist parties  Effects of the growth of socialist parties – Belgium, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, Poland, Romania and Russia

13  Social Structure of Mass Society The elite, the urban poor and the rural poor

14  The Middle Class Family  Family was a central institution  Men – income  Women – household, socials – the more idle the better!  Domestic Servants – housework/cooking  1890 to 1914 higher paying jobs made it possible to live on the husband ’ s wages  Leisure time due to higher wages and reduced work week  Holiday traditions  Gender-based activities, toys for children

15  The Working Class Family  Wages improved to allow younger children NOT to work, and even more women were staying at home like middle class  Consumer goods – sewing machines, stoves, bicycles – provided goals to work toward  Saturday leisure  Compulsory education removed children from factories and put them in schools

16  Education and Leisure  Schools  Gymnasium (Secondary Schools)  Secondary (University) for wealthy and later, middle class  Needed compulsory education for informed voting public and national pride!  Germany had 1 st public education system early 19 th century  By 1870s more school requirements  Impact on literacy  Growth of publications

17  Education and Leisure  Second IR decimated village life of past – long holidays didn’t mesh with industrial pace  Shorter work days/weeks = more leisure!  Machines to do housework = more leisure!  Rail travel to resorts and Tourism (Thomas Cook)  Music and dance halls  Organized sports  Amusement Parks

18  Early Days of Sport Rugby in Britain; Football (Soccer) in Genoa

19  Ferris Wheel – Old School

20  Imperial Motives


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