2How many bones make up an adult skeleton. How many at birth How many bones make up an adult skeleton? How many at birth? Why the difference?There are 206 bones in an adult skeletonAt birth there are over 300 bonesAs we mature to about the age of 2 years some bones fuse to make up a single bone and reduce the number to 206.
3What are 5 functions of the skeleton Structural support – hold tissues in placeMovement – provide levers for muscles to pull and moveProtection – ie: ribs protect heart, lungsMineral Reserve – calcium and phosphorous used in energy production are stored in boneManufacture of Blood Cells – marrow inside long bones produces new Red blood cells
4What is the difference between the axial and appindicular skeleton Axial skeleton is comprised of the skull, vertebrae and rib cage. 80 bones in all. Core muscles anchor here.Appendicular skeleton is comprised of the arm and leg bones plus the shoulder and pelvic girdle bones bones in all. Muscles for movement insert here.
5What is bone marrow? Where is it found and what is its purpose? Bone marrow is found as a yellowish (fat) or red (blood) substance found inside the long bones of the body. It manufactures red blood cells for our blood stream.
6What are the 5 types of bones? Give an example of each. Long bone – femur, humerusShort bone – wrist carpal, foot tarsalIrregular bone –vertebraeSesmoid – patella (floating bone)Flat bone – skull or rib
7Explain what part of the bone is called the “diaphysis” Explain what part of the bone is called the “diaphysis”. What part of a long bone makes up the Epiphysis? What is the difference between compact bone and cancellous bone?
8What is the difference between cancellous and compact bone
9WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A TRUE RIB, FALSE RIB AND FLOATING RIB WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A TRUE RIB, FALSE RIB AND FLOATING RIB? HOW MANY ARE THERE OF EACH?True Ribs are connected by cartilage directly to the sternum. There are 7 true ribs.False Ribs are connected to the cartilage of the 7th rib that leads to the sternum. There are 3 false ribs.Floating ribs are located at the inferior level of the rib cage. They are short and do not connect to the sternum (float). There are 2 floating ribs
10There are 24 vertebrae. What do Cervical, Thoracic and Lumbar vertebrae refer to? How many are in each?Cervical refers to the vertebrae in the neck region at the top of the spine. The first 7 vertebrae are cervical. C1 – C7.Thoracic refers to the vertebrae in the rib area. There are 12, numbers T8 – T19.Lumbar refers to the final 5 vertebrae in the lower back. L20 – L24.Vertebrae protect the spinal cord and allow us flexibility to move
11Bone RemodellingOur skeleton is constantly replacing old bone cells with new to ensure the integrity and strength of the our frame. The process is known as remodelling. Osteoclasts cells dissolve old bone and Osteoblasts deposit new bone cells. Our skeleton replaces itself completely about every 3 years
12What happens to the skeleton as we age? As we age the skeleton loses bone mass. More old bone is dissolved than new bone made to replace it. After the age of 40 we lose more mass than we replace. This results in weaker more frail bone.
13OsteoporosisThe condition of losing bone density due to aging is called Osteoporosis. The result can lead to brittle bones, posture and joint problems in later years of life. Exercise and diet (calcium rich) along with proper medical attention can reduce the problem as we age.
14What can we do to slow the process of bone loss due to aging? To slow done the bone loss process we should:Eat a diet balanced in calcium and vitamin DExercise regularlyRegular medical checks for bone densityAvoid excessive alcohol or smoke
15CartilageCartilage is not bone but a hard yet flexible material found in the skeleton to provide flexibility, cushioning and to prevent bones from rubbing on bone. Cartilage is very smooth and the surfaces glide over each other. It can be found between most bone articulations (where bones meet). It is found in all moving joints to allow pain free and friction free smooth movement. Cartilage does not have a blood supply so if damaged it does not repair itself very well if at all. It is a common problem in sport joint sprains of knee and shoulder.
17What holds bones together Ligaments are tough strands of connective tissue. They have little give and are found in the joints connecting the bones in place so the joint is stable and only moves in the desired motions. Ligaments join bone to bone.
18Sprains and tearsWhen the joint is pushed past its extreme range of motion then the ligaments that hold it in place as well as other soft tissues may tear. This is known as a sprain. It results in swelling, heat, redness and pain. Torn ligaments do not heal easily due to a lack of blood flow to the tissue.
19Why are long bones hollow? Long bones are hollow to reduce weight and to allow for blood cell production in the bone marrow housed in its hollow interior.
20What purpose do ridges on bones serve? Ridges on bones can serve as locations for tendons to attach (tendons connect the skeletal muscles to the skeleton).Ridges can also addstrength to the bone
21Tuberosities, Grooves, Spines Tubersosities are bumps found on the bone, spines are projections and grooves run the length of a bone. All of these can serve as attachment locations for the muscle to the bone or places for nerves to locate.
22How many bones in our skull? 29 bones in the skull. Many are fused together as in the skull and only a line exists between them outlining the area
23Identify and give an example of Ball & Socket, Hinge and Pivot joints
24Growth PlatesWe can tell when a person’s skeleton has stopped growing by looking at the growth plates on a long bone. Long bones grow by adding bone at their ends. This plate is found between the shaft and head of the bone. A gap indicates the bone is still growing. A solid line indicates growth has stopped.
25ArthritisArthritis is an inflamation around the cartilage surface or a roughening of the surface that causes pain and inflamation around the joint.