2 What do we know about the number of bones found in a human skeleton An adult skeleton contains 206 different bonesAt birth an infant has over 300 bones but as the child grows many fuse together to form one bone. As the child matures the skeleton has 206 bones.
3 Identify the 5 major functions of the skeleton Supports our weight and muscleProvides the levers necessary for movements such as walkingProtects internal organs (ribs protect heart and lungs)Produces red blood cells and platelets in the marrow of long bonesReservoir of minerals such as calcium for our metabolic use
5 Identify the major bones comprising the Axial and Appendicular skeleton. Axial is composed of the bones in the skull, spine and ribsThere are 80 bones in the Axial skeletonAppendicular skeleton is composed of the bones in the shoulder and pelvic girdles and the legs and armsThere are 126 bones in the Appendicular skeleton
7 Describe the 5 types of bones found in the body and give an example of each Short bones – carpals of wristLong bones – femur, tibia, ulnaFlat bones – skull, scapula, ribsSesamoid bones – patella (floating)Irregular bones – vertebrae
9 What is the clavicle bone? What important function does it have? The clavicle is also known as the collar bone. It is attached to the sternum at one end and the scapula at the other by ligamentsIt is the only bone attachment holding the shoulder and arm to our skeleton. Muscles and tendons help support the attachment but the clavicle is the skeletal attachment to our axial skeleton
11 In your own words describe the process of bone remodeling and the role of osteoclasts and osteoblasts.Bone remodeling is the process where old bone is disposed of and replaced by new bone. It is important to the maintenance of a strong healthy skeleton. Our skeleton replaces bone at the rate of about 10% a year. After the age of 35 – 40yrs our skeleton absorbs bone faster than it replaces it.Osteoclasts are the cells that dissolve and absorb old bone. Osteoblasts are the cells that deposit new bone in its place.
13 What do we know about stress fractures common in sports? Most fractures are the result of a blow to the bone but stress fractures are the result of repetitive shock placed on the bone during exercise. The muscles usually act like a shock absorber during pounding activities like running however when the muscles fatigue the shock is transferred to the bone and can result in tiny cracks or stress fractureHard surfaces, poor footwear, over training are all potential causesRest of up to 6 to 8 weeks from activity is usually required for the stress fracture to heal.
14 What is Osteoporosis? What are the 4 recommended steps to help prevent osteoporosis? As we age past 40 our bones lose density and mass. Osteoporosis is a degenerative disease where this process occurs to the point where bones become fragile and susceptible to breaking. Injuries to the hip, spine and wrist are most common and simple falls or even bumps may cause damage. Post menopausal women are more susceptible to osteoporosis than men.4 steps that help defend against this diseaseEat a balanced diet rich in calcium and vitamin DRegular weight bearing exercisesNo smoking and moderate use of alcoholBone density testing and medication when required
16 Structure and Function of Cartilage, Ligaments and Tendons Cartilage is hard yet flexible connective tissue that is found on the ends of bones where bones meet to form a joint. It provides a smooth sliding surface as the bones move around the joint. In some cases it provides a flexible but hard connection between two bones such as the ribs to the sternum.Tendons are strong fibers of connective tissue that are found at the end of a skeletal muscle attaching the muscle to the bone. When a muscle contracts it is the tendon that pulls on the bone causing it to move.Ligaments are strong fibers of connective tissue that are found in joints where bones meet. They attach the bones to each other in a stable but flexible way to allow movement and stability around the joint.Neither ligament nor tendons stretch much and may tear during joint injuries resulting in sprains. Cartilage may become worn with age or overuse. Tears in the cartilage may occur from joint trauma
18 What is a Synovial joint? Synovial joints make up most of our moving joints. They are made up of ligaments, tendons, cartilage, bursae, synovial sac and fluid around the jointBursae are little fluid sacs found between tendons and bone that act as cushions to reduce shock and frictionSynovial sac is a tough membrane that encapsulates the joint. It is filled with a slippery lubricant called synovial fluid. Synovial fluid helps to prevent friction and irritation as the joint moves.
19 SprainsOccur around a joint when the joint moves in a direction it was not designed to go or when it moves further than it is able without damaging surrounding tissues.Sprains cause ruptures to the synovial sac and surrounding blood vessels resulting in swelling.Ligaments, cartilage and sometimes bone can also be torn or chipped.Symptoms of a sprain are swelling, redness, heat and painTo treat sprainsRest – slows heart and blood flow to injured areaIce – cools area causing broken vessels to constrict and reduce blood flow and swellingCompress – putting pressure around swollen area helps to constrict broken vessels and reduce swellingElevate – injury is placed above level of heart to cause blood to run uphill and slow the swellingOnce the ruptured tissues have repaired (about 48 hours) heat can be applied to help increase blood flow to area which will help pump out the swelling and promote further tissue recovery.Ankle sprains usually take 2 to 3 weeks for full recoveryKnee sprains take longer to recover and may be measured in months.
20 DislocationsOccur when the bones making up the joint separate from their normal position and stay out of socketThis results in tearing and stretching of ligamentsSupport the joint and seek medical assistance. Do not replace on own
21 Partial DislocationWhen a joint pops out of place but immediately returns to its proper positionUsually results in some tearing of ligaments and swelling.Stop activity, use RICE principles if possible
22 Bone Breaks There are several causes for bones to break: Direct force – a blow or hitIndirect force – such as jumping from a height and landing on the feet but your tibia cracks from the forceOveruse – stress fractures can result from constant pounding such as running too much on hard surfacesSymptoms are deep pain, swelling/deformity, loss of function, may have heard the breakTo treat immobilize joints above and below injury with splints, seek medical attention.