just water Energy to heat it Chemicals in it Pollution
Industry Use high temperatures Inefficient Indirect heating – Boiler makes steam – Steam shipped to machines – Heat exchanger What’s insulation? Water used for cooling Often no effluent treatment
Domestic Uses lower temperatures Low chemical usage Direct heating – Water heated in machine Or from insulated hot water source Always to an ETP
Durability means Sustainability 150 l/kg per kg to produce (20,150 l/kg for cotton) 15 l/kg per kg to wash Items washed 10 times or less have bigger production impact!
Durability means Sustainability Factor in cotton growing
Is water used or ‘borrowed’? Some always used – (evaporation) It’s never put back in form it was taken Water-recycling massively under-utilised
Number 1 Fashion Crime Pollution Most pollution is where water is plentiful – India – Bangladesh – China
Actions Shift focus to textile production Priority 1.Traceability 2.Compliance with environmental laws 3.Reduction in needless textile consumption 4.Reduction in water consumption
Traceability – The foundation of everything How to achieve it – Legislation? – Shame, Pressure? – Brand co-operation? – Fashion media Everyone fears traceability – “commercial sensitivities” – Fear of what will be found
Compliance Who? – Retailers? Makes them higher cost – Governments? Short term damage to economy
Textile Consumption Lower volumes Higher value Prices to reflect true cost Taxes based on volumes bought/sold?
Reducing Water Consumption Evolution or revolution? – Right first time – Best available technology – Re-cycling – Liquid carbon dioxide – Marginalisation of cotton (Kyoto style targets) – Product labelling based on facts not hype
Summary Water ‘use’ is not always an issue Pollution is the major issue Energy use associated with water use is a major issue Focus on industry not domestic Best practice could halve water consumption in dyeing