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IPM of Insect Pest Soil 404 D. P. Muehleisen

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1 IPM of Insect Pest Soil 404 D. P. Muehleisen
You did not weave the web of life, you are merely a strand in it. Whatever you do to the web, you do to yourself. You may think you own the land. You do not. It is God's. The earth is precious to God and to harm the earth is to heap contempt upon its creator. - Chief Seattle (1854) Courtesy of the International Pest Management Institute. Currie Enterprises

2 What is IPM? There are many different definitions
Key concepts: Pests and management Integrated pest management is a sustainable approach to controlling insect pest populations that combines (PAMS) prevention, avoidance, monitoring suppression strategies in a way that minimizes economic, health, and environmental risks. CSREES/Land-Grant University Definition (1998)

3 IPM=Improved Pesticide Marketing?
History Early years, pesticide based Ecosystem based Key concept: integrate numerous of compatible control strategies to maximize population stabilization

4 Prevention Various practices that keep pests from infesting a production site (i.e. field, orchard, or greenhouse) Examples Using pest free seed or transplants Field sanitation Eliminating alternative hosts

5 Avoidance When pests are already present in the general area, but pest impact can be minimized through various cultural practices. Crop rotation Crop choices Trap crops Adjusting planting schedule Early planting, late planting, not planting Genetic modification Resistance traits Fast maturing varieties

6 Monitoring The key component to any IPM program
Proper identification of pest – know your enemy Monitoring program Traps Weather monitoring Soil testing, when appropriate Record keeping Pest incidence and distribution in each field

7 Suppression To avoid economic loss, population suppression technique may be necessary
Biological Control Mating disruption Pheromone Sterile release Conservation Augmentation Chemical/biopesticide control Considered a last resort Cost:benefit Cultural practices No-till or strip till Cover crops or mulches Companion planting Allelopathic properties Physical suppression Baited or pheromone traps Exclusion devices Row covers

8 Problems with pesticides: The pesticide treadmill
Resistance Resurgence Secondary pests Residues

9 What does Resurgence and Resistance look like?

10 The Basic Elements of an IPM Program
• Understand the biology and economics of the crop or resource.  • Identify the key pests and learn their biology and life cycle.  • Consider using combinations of methods and materials to manage pests.  • Direct control practices at the weak link in the life cycle of key pests.  Monitor fields regularly and systematically • Use control methods that preserve and enhance naturally occurring beneficial organisms.  Gain threshold= management cost ($/ac)/market value ( $/bu)

11 Planning an on Farm IPM Program
Considerations Ecosystem management I.E., Beneficial habitat Cultural control Plant varieties/cropping systems selection Resistance to major pest Will it sell? Information resources Know your county agent Monitoring program Pest & beneficial identification Record keeping Field maps Id problem spots Know your management options Organic different from conventional Do you have the resources to implement those options

12 Population Ecology Economic Injury Level (EIL): Low pop of insect that will cause economic damage. Damage Boundary: pop. level where damage can be measured. Economic Threshold (ET): pop density or damage where action must be taken.

13 Ecosystem management effects on carrying capacity
Carrying capacity impacts ET and EIL Managing habitat for beneficial populations require shelter food Water

14 Plants to Attract and Feed Beneficial Insects
Umbelliferae family carrot, yarrow, Queen Anne’s lace, dill, anise, fennel, coriander, parsley Compositae family zinnia, marigold, aster, daisies, mums, black-eyed susan, coneflower, Coreopsis Mint family and Perennial herbs mints, thyme, sage, oregano, bee balm, basil Other plants salvias, wallflowers, nasturtiums, poppies, etc. goldenrod Wild carrot dill

15 Cultural Control Varieties/Cropping System
Developmental rate Planting dates/harvesting dates Crop rotation

16 Plant varieties /Cropping systems
• Cultivars should be resistant to major pest(s). • Cultivars should have appropriate mode of resistance. • Cultivars should be appropriate for the area. • Cultivars should be commercially available. • Cultivars must have a market (a concern with some genetically modified crops) Multiple cropping Sequential production Interplanting Cover crop Intercropping Two or more crops on the same land at the same time Strip cropping

17 Cover Crops

18 Biological Controls Conservation Predators Parasitoids Augmentation

19 Predators Lady bird beetles
Adults Larva

20 Predators Green Lacewing
Adults Larva

21 Predators Syrphid fly Adults Larva

22 Predators Orius insidious

23 Encarsia inaron Parasitoids Peristenus digoneutis

24 Augmentation: Predator/Parasite release

25 Mechanical/Physical controls
Row covers Hand picking Sticky boards Plant collars

26 Insecticides Chemical pesticides Biochemicals Biopesticides
pyrethrins rotenone azadirachtin Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) Synethetic pesticides Permethrin (Pounce) Biopesticides Bacteria Fungi Viruses

27 Monitoring of pest populations
Random Samples a measure of the total population Scouting fields Hand lens Random samples Trapping Pheromone traps Light traps Pit fall traps Sticky traps Sweep Net Vacuuming Beat sheets

28 Field Scouting Random samples Point Sample

29 Sweep net sample

30 Trapping Visual trap Lure trap Pheromone trap Pheromone trap

31 Beat sheet

32 Disease Control

33 ID your problem Jenny Glass, Plant Diagnostician
Puyallup Research and Extension Center 7162 Pioneer Way, East Puyallup, WA Phone: Fax:

34 How does a disease spread?

35 Disease Distribution and its Impact
Occurrence over time Disease distribution Apple powdery mildew

36 Principles of Disease Management - Organic
Choose varieties resistant to the major diseases in your area Use disease free seed Plant under conditions that favor plant germination and growth As opposed to conditions favoring disease development Temperature and moisture critical Crop rotation Good sanitation techniques Healthy soil = healthy plants Weed control Be aware of secondary hosts Control insect pests Vectors of diseases

37 Traditional Principles of Plant Disease Control
Avoidance—prevent disease by selecting a time of the year or a site where there is no inoculum or where the environment is not favorable for infection. Exclusion—prevent the introduction of inoculum. Eradication—eliminate, destroy, or inactivate the inoculum. Protection—prevent infection by means of a toxicant or some other barrier to infection. Resistance—utilize cultivars that are resistant to or tolerant of infection. Therapy—cure plants that are already infected.

38 Tactics for the Reduction of Initial Inoculum
Avoidance—reduce the level of disease by selecting a season or a site where the amount of inoculum is low or where the environment is unfavorable for infection Exclusion—reduce the amount of initial inoculum introduced from outside sources Eradication—reduce the production of initial inoculum by destroying or inactivating the sources of initial inoculum (sanitation, removal of reservoirs of inoculum, removal of alternate hosts, etc.) Protection—reduce the level of initial infection by means of a toxicant or other barrier to infection Resistance—use cultivars that are resistant to infection, particularly the initial infection Therapy—use thermotherapy, chemotherapy and/or meristem culture to produce certified seed or vegetative planting stock

39 Tactics for the Reduction of the Infection Rate
Avoidance—reduce the rate of production of inoculum, the rate of infection, or the rate of development of the pathogen by selecting a season or a site where the environment is not favorable Exclusion—reduce the introduction of inoculum from external sources during the course of the epidemic Eradication—reduce the rate of inoculum production during the course of the epidemic by destroying or inactivating the sources of inoculum (roguing) Protection—reduce the rate of infection by means of a toxicant or some other barrier to infection Resistance—plant cultivars that can reduce the rate of inoculum production, the rate of infection, or the rate of pathogen development Therapy—cure the plants that are already infected or reduce their production of inoculum

40 Tactics for the Reduction of the Duration of the Epidemic
Avoidance—plant early maturing cultivars or plant at a time that favors rapid maturation of the crop Exclusion—delay the introduction of inoculum from external sources by means of plant quarantine

41 Disease Causing Agents
Fungi Bacteria Viruses

42 Fungi life cycle Example: Venturia inaequalis (Cooke) Wint Apple scab

43 Bacteria Erwinia amylovora Fire blight

44 Viruses Tobamovirus, Tobacco Mosaic Virus

45 Weed Management

46 Know your Weeds Id your weeds in your field Thrive in specific niches
Be sure you want to get rid of it “weeds are plant we have not yet found a use for” Holding water Creating organic matter Providing cover Habitat for beneficial they have a role Klamath weed weevil Indicator species Mustard Story Thrive in specific niches Do well in specific nutrient deficiencies Mustard efficient scavenger of Fe and S Lesser degree Ca When in deficiency mustard does well Iron sulfate will knock back mustard

47 Tools for Control Exclusion Compost
Don’t bring weed seeds onto the farm Nutrients brought onto the farm Raw manure will have seeds Mulches Don’t use hay Straw is better How do you avoid this? Compost degrees F Turn the pile often to get the temp throughout and kill seed Be careful of source material Malva resistant to heat

48 Don’t let weeds go to seed!
Early cycle weed control Is it worth continued harvesting from field to justify continued weed management? Hand weeding is expensive $200-$700/Ac Expensive to control in row Cultivate on both sides of row Precision planter Get a uniform stand Allows more rapid use of how Shallow planting Deeper the planting, the longer for germination Distance between row Shade out weeds Plant dense - set up a bed like system

49 Cover crop the year before
Use cover crop for weed suppression Shallow tillage Brings smallest amount weeds to the top Tilling brings weeds to the top Stale bed Force weed Germination Plant into the moisture Let grown surface dry out Germination from ground water Irrigate after germination

50 Transplants Give 4+ week jump on weeds
Plant at the right planting density can give you weed free plots

51 Irrigation Drip irrigation is more water efficient but by directing water to the specific location minimizes weed germination and reduces need to cultivate

52 Timing of Cultivation Cultivate as soon as you can
Small weeds easier than big weeds to remove Do not irrigate right after cultivation Depth of cultivation Depends on weed species

53 Solarizing the soil Cultivate soil Irrigate soil completely
Put plastic over the soil Weed get cooked Soil gets up to 120 degrees F Bacteria fungi die and release nutrients They do rebound Cooler climates two layers of plastic Have PVC between layers – create dead air space Cooks weeds Needs to be on for at least 30 days during the heat of the summer

54 Weed control with herbivores
Hylobius sp.

55 Equipment A large part of controlling weeds is recruitment of the appropriate technology The following is a short survey of the available equipment.

56 Hand Tools

57 Hand Tools

58 Weed Badger Three point hitch mounted.
separate hydraulically driven rotary head Weed control for perennial plants

59 Flamer Flame engineering kit
Perennial crop model for weed control in berms Different models available for beds or rows.

60 Spring Tooth Cultivator
Specially suitable for quack grass control Bring rhizomes to surface and causes them to desicate Timing is critical

61 Bushhog Rotary mower Cutting cover crop
Mowing weeds before setting seeds

62 Spader Deep tilling with minimum disruption of the soil surface

63 Basket Weeder Budghing Corp
Stale bed preparation Newly planted transplants Weed seedling control Timing critical


65 Farmall Cub Belly mount tool bar Rear mounted sweeps
Single row fertilizer applicator for a belly mounted tool bar

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