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S Concepts of Integrated Pest Management Leonard Coop Assistant Research Professor Oregon State University Integrated Plant Protection Center 2040 Cordley.

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Presentation on theme: "S Concepts of Integrated Pest Management Leonard Coop Assistant Research Professor Oregon State University Integrated Plant Protection Center 2040 Cordley."— Presentation transcript:

1 S Concepts of Integrated Pest Management Leonard Coop Assistant Research Professor Oregon State University Integrated Plant Protection Center 2040 Cordley Hall Corvallis, Oregon

2 Evaluation Losses Due to Pests ● Worldwide losses due to insects, weeds, and plant diseases amount to $230 billion annually (1995) ● In the US, losses amount to $19.4 billion annually: ● Insects:$5.8 billion ● Plant Diseases:$6.6 billion ● Weeds:$7.0 billion ● The world pesticide industry is around $34 bill/yr, US alone is around $11 bill/yr (1999)

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5 1) Pest resistance to pesticides (insects, weeds, plant diseases) 2) Emergence of secondary pests when pesticides disrupt beneficial organisms aka “secondary pest outbreaks” 3) Impact of pesticides on beneficial organisms and nontarget species, pest resurgence 4) Environmental concerns stemming from misuse of pesticides 5) Economic incentives (improve yields, lower pest control costs) Why IPM (why no silver bullet)?

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7 Evaluation Philosophy of Integrated Pest Management ● Multidisciplinary science, practiced in context with other crop production techniques, like soil fertility and irrigation management ● A holistic (systems) approach to pest management ● Preventive strategies over prescriptive tactics ● Long term management over short term control ● Target key pests with non-disruptive solutions and thus avoid secondary pest outbreaks ● Monitoring, decision making, control tactics, and evaluation are also components to IPM

8 Control INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT Components Prevention These components are all required for IPM Feedback allows continuous improvements to all components Evaluation Decision Making Monitoring

9 Evaluation –IPM consultants & Extension have focus on Efficacy and Economics. –NRCS has focus on Environmental risks and appropriate mitigation strategies. –But all three of these must be integrated into final pest management decisions. –Together, we must deliver an integrated message and provide appropriate incentives for implementing reduced risk alternatives. NRCS IPM Cost Share & Incentives

10 Control INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT Components Prevention Field layout/timing Resistant/non- susceptible cultivars Certified seed Conservation biological control Eliminate alternate host plants Field/equipment sanitation Cultural practices Evaluation Decision Making Monitoring

11 Evaluation Conservation Biological Control e. g. border plantings, cover crops, careful weed management

12 Evaluation

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14 Control INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT Components Prevention Regular field inspections/mapping Weather data Meaningful IDs of pests and beneficials Sampling technologies Record keeping Sharing data with neighbors/regionally Evaluation Decision Making Monitoring

15 Sampling pattern Sample a) randomly vs. b) stratified a) every unit w/same chance of inspection b) focus on efficiency with known biases Spread-out samples across entire field insects seldom occur evenly across fields Examine every field infestation levels can vary w/in 1 field, let alone among several different fields

16 HIGH precision HIGH accuracy { random unbiased efficient IDEALIZED SAMPLE

17 LOW precisionHIGH precision LOW accuracyLOW accuracy -random -unbiased -less efficient REAL WORLD SAMPLES -nonrandom -biased -more efficient

18 Control INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT Components Prevention Use Economic Injury Levels and action thresholds Know potential crop losses (risks) Know the control option costs and efficacies Compute benefit /cost ratio of control Evaluation Decision Making Monitoring

19 economic injury level EIL - pest density where cost of pest control= benefits of pest control = value of damage prevented - break-even decision rule economic threshold ET -time to take control action to prevent pest population from increasing above EIL = “action threshold” INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT

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22 JuneMay Infestation Level August spray SPRAY with control DO NOT SPRAY EIL ET without control July

23 ECONOMIC THRESHOLDS

24 Control INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT Components Prevention Cultural Biological Biorational, Soft Conventional, Broad spectrum Spray timing, phenology models, other weather effects e.g. drift Evaluation Decision Making Monitoring

25 Control INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT Components Prevention Record Keeping Post-control Sampling On-farm Scientific Research -2 or more treatments -replicated sampling Fine-tuning Sharing results Evaluation Decision Making Monitoring

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31 Biological Cultural / Host Plant Resistance Pesticides enhance reduce need for least-toxic Sampling & Thresholds determine need for INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT

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33 These IPM components and principles together change the way we view pest control; from short term control with pesticides to long term management strategies involving multiple approaches that introduce more permanent solutions for pest suppressions These IPM components and principles together change the way we view pest control; from short term control with pesticides to long term management strategies involving multiple approaches that introduce more permanent solutions for pest suppressions Implementation of IPM Philosophy


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