Mary Queen of Scots Mary, Queen of Scots, was born in 1542 and was executed on 1587 Mary was Elizabeth I's cousin. Mary had been brought up as a strict Catholic which put her at odds with the Protestant Elizabeth. Became queen when she was only one Raised at the French court, and was married at 15. Her husband the French prince died a year later. She returned to Scotland, re-married – very turbulent relationship, they had a son, later became James I of England. Her husband was found strangled in there ruins of their house, which was set on fire She married again to the Earl of Bothwell – who many believed killed her husband She was arrested by Scottish Nobles but escaped to England hoping her cousin would help her She didn’t she imprisoned her in many different house throughout England for the next 19 years Elizabeth wanted to maintain religious stability Mary was an obvious replacement for Catholics who did not want Elizabeth to be queen Elizabeth I was reluctant to sign Mary's death warrant but she had no option when it was clear Mary had committed treasons against her by taking part in the Babington Plot On 8 February 1587, Mary, Queen of Scots was executed at Fotheringhay Castle. She wore a blood red bodice, symbolising Catholic martyrdom. James VI of Scotland had Fotheringhay destroyed after he became King of England. He united the two nations and had Mary and Elizabeth buried side by side in Westminster Abbey.
John Penry 1563 – 1593 Welsh Brought up a Roman Catholic Son of a wealthy farmer Attended Cambridge university and then Oxford, came into contact with protestant ideas and influences Known in Wales for his skills as a preacher, being known as ’Telyn Cymru’ (the Welsh Harp) Wanted the church to be improved, even petitioned the queen (Elizabeth I) Arrest by the archbishop Got involved in printing information about the church – this was viewed by many as treason He had to continue to move around to avoid arrest Continued to denounce to church and openly spoke about it 1592/93 – arrested, and despite swearing allegiance to the queen and the country was sentenced to death and executed on 29 March 1593 Influence at the time quite limited Considered by historians as the first welsh protestant preacher
Marian Persecutions 1553 – 1558 Carried out against protestant reformers During the reign of Mary I Executed under pro-catholic legislation Executed through burning 284 burned as heretics during her reign Earned her the nickname ‘Bloody Mary’ Famous protestants executed under the Marian persecutions – Hugh Latimer, Nicolas Ridley & Thomas Cramner
House of correctionDebtors’ Prisons Bridewells Prisons in the 16 th and 17 th centuries
Imprisonment in the 16 th and 17 th centuries
House of Correction The house of correction was a built after the passing of the Elizabethan Poor Law (1601) Elizabethan Poor Law (1601) The first Houses of Correction were set up in Tudor times. They continued in use well into the 19th Century places where those who were "unwilling to work", including vagrants and beggars, were set to work. Also used to punish those who were found guilty of disturbing the peace e.g. three youths were sent to the house of correction for singing in the streets. Over the centuries their role changed from a place to train vagrants to a lock-up for petty criminals who were not to be exposed to the more hardened prisoners in gaol.
House of Correction Houses of Correction started as a Tudor experiment influenced by European philosophers. The aim was to both punish, and at the same time train, petty criminals so that they would become useful members of society. Simple crafts were taught to prisoners while in custody. This attempt failed, but houses of correction continued to be used across the country for petty criminals such as children who stole, prostitutes, ‘sturdy beggars’, and lunatics. The first ever House of Correction was at the palace of Bridewell in London, and the name ‘bridewell’ was often used as an alternative to ‘House of Correction’
Bridewells Another name given to a house of correction. Many towns built ‘Bridewells’, the first was in London at Bridewell Palace, which is where the name Bridewell comes from. Vagrants, unmarried mothers and runaway apprentices were sent to the Bridewell They were whipped and set to hard labour Extra punishment were given if inmates misbehaved People believed that crimes occurred because people were not working hard enough
Debtors’ Prisons A debtors' prison is a prison for those who are unable to pay a debt.prison debt Prior to the mid 19th century debtors' prisons were a common way to deal with unpaid debt debtors, both men and women, were locked up together in a single large cell until their families paid their debt Debt prisoners often died of disease contracted from other debt prisoners. Conditions included starvation and abuse from other prisoners. If the father of a family was imprisoned for debt, the family business often suffered while the mother and children fell into poverty. Unable to pay the debt, the father often remained in debtors' prison for many years.
In the United Kingdom, debtors' prisons varied in the amount of freedom they allowed the debtor.United Kingdom With a little money, a debtor could pay for some freedomsmoney Life in these prisons, however, was far from pleasant and the inmates were forced to pay for their keep. Some debtors prisoners were even less fortunate, being sent to prisons with a mixture of vicious criminals and petty criminals, and many more were confined to a single cell. The father of the English author Charles Dickens was sent to one of these prisons (Marshalsea Prison), which were often described in Dickens' novels.EnglishCharles DickensMarshalsea Prison In 1869 the UK abolished imprisonment for debt, although debtors who had the means to pay their debt, but did not do so, could still be incarcerated for up to six weeks.
What was the Bloody Code? Give two examples of the crimes which were punishable by death Why was the bloody code introduced and continue for so many years? Why were executions held in public? What were the alternatives to executions?
Prison Reformers Changes in the 1800’s Separate System Silent System John Howard Elizabeth Fry George O Paul
Overcrowded Unhealthy and unhygienic Mixed cells No re-education Violent punishments Badly organised Corrupt
Changes in the 1800’s Separate prison cells Toilets in the cells Organised New buildings More prison officers Hard labour Disciplined Cruel Training for officers
Separate System Indivdual cells Worked, prayed had religious teaching Only left their cell for one hour of exercise and religious events Solitary confinement Pentonville prison first one 1850’s onwards Over 50 in the country Later on they became a bit more relaxed Very expensive
Silent System Some said separate system was too harsh There was high insanity and suicide rate So they decided to let the prisoners work together but in silence It was cheaper because no new buildings were needed But needed great discipline to be effective Pointless work
Elizabeth Fry Born Brought up as Quaker (religious/strict protestant & Christian) Helped the homeless Reformed women’s prison in Newgate Gaol (prison) Helped bring about changes in prisons – particularly newgate. Providing clothing, furniture, females warders, schools and skills for women and children
John Howard Born 1726 – 90 Worked as a sherfiff in bedfordshire and was responsible for prisons Produced a books which discuss the state of prisons and called for reform His influence encouraged reform but didn’t really take place until sometime after his death
Homework Complete essay task for last week if you haven’t already Complete the other two questions on transportation on the sheet Using coloured a4 sheet makes notes in detail about terrorism Revise everything we have done so far on crime and punishment