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Chapters 6 & 19.  Plant features Common traits in all plants:  All plants have chloroplasts  Contain chlorophyll: a chemical that gives plants their.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapters 6 & 19.  Plant features Common traits in all plants:  All plants have chloroplasts  Contain chlorophyll: a chemical that gives plants their."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapters 6 & 19

2  Plant features Common traits in all plants:  All plants have chloroplasts  Contain chlorophyll: a chemical that gives plants their green color and traps light energy  Light energy is used in photosynthesis: the process in which plants use water, carbon dioxide, and energy from the sun to make food  Releases oxygen  Occurs in the chloroplast  All plants contain a stiff cell wall

3  Two groups of plants Based on whether or not they have cells that make up tubes throughout the length of the plant  Vascular plants: plants that have tube like cells in their roots, stems, & leaves  like a straw  Like an elevator- these tube like cells carry things up and down the length of the plant  Carries:  *water and minerals  *food made by the leaves  Nonvascular plants: do not have tube like cells in their roots, stems, & leaves  Shorter & grow close to the ground  Use osmosis to take up water

4  Mosses & Liverworts Moss: small, nonvascular plant that has both stems and leaves but no roots Liverworts: found in small patches that appear wet and slippery

5  Mosses & Liverworts Neither have roots  Hair like cells used to attach to the ground or tree trunk  Take up water  Only a few cm tall  Common in wet or damp areas Mosses  Stems grow upright  Fine & soft  Stems that creep across the ground  Appear like longer, tangled, wavy hair

6  Mosses & Liverworts Mosses cont.  Leaves= 1 or 2 cells thick  Easily dry out Liverworts  Many don’t have roots, stems, or leaves  Body is flat slippery layer of green cells  Leaves grow in 2 or 3 flattened rows along the stem

7  Mosses & Liverworts Uses  Food  Snails & worms  Help hold soil in place  Prevents soil from washing away  Some mosses that live on rocks-cause them to break down and form soil  Sphagnum moss used in hanging baskets or flowers  Aka peat moss  Increases the amount of water that can be held

8  Life cycle of a moss ***Need constant source of water to survive***  Used in sexual reproduction  Sexual Reproduction: the forming of a new organism by the union of two reproductive cells  Female reproductive cell: egg  Male reproductive cell: sperm  Fertilization: joining of the sperm and egg cell  Occurs in most plants and animals  Sperm & eggs of mosses form at the tips of the leafy stems

9  Life cycle of a moss

10  Majority of plants  Two types of tube like cells Xylem: carry water and dissolved minerals from roots to the leaves Phloem: carry food that is made in the leaves to all parts of the plant

11  Ferns : vascular plant that reproduces with spore Can grow much taller than mosses or liverworts  In tropical forest can grow to 25 meters! During part of its life ferns do not have a vascular system at all  Often grow in moist, shaded areas  Some can live in drier areas and some actually grow in water 12,000+ species- most live in tropical forests

12  Ferns cont. Leaves grow from a horizontal stem that lies underground  Stem stores food and water Roots  Anchor plant  Take up water and minerals from the soil Fern leaves are divided into many leaflets  Many lose their leaves at the end of the growing season  New leaves form in the spring Named by the shapes of their leaves Reproduce with spores  Found on the underside of the leaves  Brown/orange “spots”- spore cases: hold the spores

13  Ferns cont. Leaves grow from a horizontal stem that lies underground  Stem stores food and water Roots  Anchor plant  Take up water and minerals from the soil Fern leaves are divided into many leaflets  Many lose their leaves at the end of the growing season  New leaves form in the spring Named by the shapes of their leaves Reproduce with spores  Found on the underside of the leaves  Brown/orange “spots”- spore cases: hold the spores

14  Ferns cont. Life cycle  Spore case opens  Carried by water or wind  If it lands in a moist place it grows into a small, flat, heart- shaped plant  Heart-shaped plant produces sperm cells and egg cells  Sperm swim through the water to fertilize the egg cell  Fertilized egg develops into a new fern

15  Seed: Part of a plant that contains an embryonic plant and stored food.  Embryo: an organism in it’s earliest stages of growth Young root Embryo Stored food Young shoot Seed Coat

16  Conifers: a type of seed plant that produces seeds in cones.  Most common land plants  Most do NOT lose their leaves  Found in the northern areas  Small needle-shaped leaves  Examples:  Evergreen Trees- sheds their leaves but not all at once  Pine, Spruce, & Fir  Loose their leaves each fall:  Larch, Dawn Redwood, & Bald Cypress

17  Conifers:

18 Life cycle of a pine tree:  Produce male and female cones  Small cones=male  *produce pollen: tiny grains of seed plants that develop sperm  *Found in early spring  *Wind is used to carry the pollen  Large cones=female  *contain egg cells  *when seeds are ripe the cones dry and the wood like scales open  **seeds fall to the ground  **if conditions are right the seeds grow into a new plant

19  Conifers:

20 Roots and Stems are woody Xylem cells have thick cell walls Leaves are tough and needle like  Some can be scale like Can live in a variety of places  Wet areas, dry areas, high mountain slopes, close to sea etc. Wood is mainly made of xylem cells\  Paper, pencils, lumber, Important shelter and food for animals  Bark, buds, and seeds are eaten by insects, birds, squirrels, rabbits, and more!

21  Flowering Plants: vascular plant that produces seeds inside a flower Flower: the reproductive part of the plant  Male part: produces pollen  Sperm produced in the pollen  Must join with egg to reproduce  Carried by insects, wind, or other animals  Female part: produces eggs  Develops into a fruit that protects the seeds More flowering plants than non  Better seed protection  Adaptive to many environments

22  Flowering Plants: Examples:  Most broadleaved trees, vegetables, grasses, weeds, thorn bushes, and of course flowers like roses etc. Only produce flowers at certain times during the year Uses:  Decoration  Food source  Can you name some examples?  Which parts do you eat? (stems, leaves, fruit, or seed?)  Provides us with Oxygen  Removes carbon dioxide

23  Most are flat and green Blade: thin, flat part of the leaf  Many different shapes:  Round, heart-shaped, long and narrow, short and broad  May not even look like a leaf  Example: needles Stalk attaches the leaf to the stem  Many lengths and thicknesses  Example: celery stalk- the part you eat  Some plants do not have this  Examples: Grass & corn  Leaves NOT attached to the stem by stalks  Leaves directly attached to the stem  Contains xylem and phloem

24  Midrib: the main vein of the leaf Continues off the stalk Small veins branch off the midrib  Also contain xylem and phloem Stalk

25  Used to identify plants

26  Arranged in layers

27  Waxy layer: Protects from water loss and from insects  Epidermis: outer layer of the cells of a plant Only one cell thick  Palisade Layer: layer of long, green cells below the upper epidermis Make most of the food for the plant Contain many chloroplast Chlorophyll  green pigment

28  Spongy Layer: below the palisade layer, made of round green cells Loosely arranged- in between filled with water and air Also make food Veins are found here

29  Another layer of epidermis with waxy layer, called lower epidermis Stoma: small pore or opening in the epidermis (both lower and upper) of a leaf  Stomata=plural word for stoma  Allow gas exchange  Including water vapor  Open during the day  lets in CO 2  Closed during the night  Guard Cells: green cells that change the size of the stoma in a leaf  Works by taking in or releasing water through osmosis

30  Transpiration: the process of water passing out through the stomata of the leaves Plants may loose up to 90% of the water they take up through their roots each day  Wilting: when plant loses water faster than it can be replaced Plant cells are mostly water  Water keeps the plant cells firm Water loss is greater during warm days

31  Product: Sugar Serves as food for the plant  6CO 2 + 6H 2 O Sunlight trapped by the chlorophyll C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2

32  Chlorophyll is used to trap the light energy  Waste product: Oxygen

33  Sugar made during photosynthesis: Broken down and used to make other molecules used by the plant to grow  This releases energy

34  Leaves  produce food for plants  Food produced for plants  eaten by animals Releases energy for animal to use

35  Animals that eat plants  food source for animals that eat other animals

36  Leaves used for food Animals, humans, insects etc.  Cattle, sheep, etc. eat leaves of grass Examples:  Cabbage  Lettuce  Spinach  Onions  Leaves used for spices: sage, bay, parsley, etc  Tea  Peppermint  Spearmint  Used as medicine Foxglove  contains chemical digitalis  Used in treating heart disease

37  Colored pigment Green =chlorophyll  Forms only when light is present Yellow & red also present Chlorophyll covers up the effects of other pigments  Some plants are always colors other than green  Example: Coleus Plant  Some plants change color in the fall  Flow of sap slows  Temp drops  Less sunlight  Chlorophyll breaks down  Other colors show through

38  http://www.bio.umass.edu/biology/conn.river/liverwts.html liver warts slide 4 http://www.bio.umass.edu/biology/conn.river/liverwts.html  http://www.irishviews.com/moss6.jpg Moss slide 4 http://www.irishviews.com/moss6.jpg  http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/mosses/1/2 life cycle of moss slide9 http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/mosses/1/2  http://www.warpedphotosblog.com/split-tip-fern-spores slide 12 http://www.warpedphotosblog.com/split-tip-fern-spores  http://altoonsultan.blogspot.com/2010/08/walk-in-woods-fern-spores.html fern spores 2 slide 12 http://altoonsultan.blogspot.com/2010/08/walk-in-woods-fern-spores.html  http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/ferns-and-lycophytes/2/1 fern life cycle slide 14 http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/ferns-and-lycophytes/2/1  http://clara-hinton.blogspot.com/2010/05/inside-every-peanut-theres-man.html peanut slide 15 http://clara-hinton.blogspot.com/2010/05/inside-every-peanut-theres-man.html  http://www.onyxcollection.com/new/inlay_5a.html pine cone slide 17 http://www.onyxcollection.com/new/inlay_5a.html  http://www.alaska-in-pictures.com/sitka-spruce-tree-cones-prince-william-sound-8874-pictures.htm Spruce Cones slide 17 http://www.alaska-in-pictures.com/sitka-spruce-tree-cones-prince-william-sound-8874-pictures.htm  http://uacd.org/zones/Zone1/BoxElder/Tree%20Sale/EVERGREENS/Douglas_fir.htm Fir Cone slide 17 http://uacd.org/zones/Zone1/BoxElder/Tree%20Sale/EVERGREENS/Douglas_fir.htm  http://biology.clc.uc.edu/courses/bio106/gymnospr.htm Male & female pine cones slide 19 http://biology.clc.uc.edu/courses/bio106/gymnospr.htm  http://www.exploringnature.org/db/detail.php?dbID=32&detID=1895 life cycle of a conifer http://www.exploringnature.org/db/detail.php?dbID=32&detID=1895  http://www.my-photo-gallery.com/tag/vegetable-garden/ squash slide 22 http://www.my-photo-gallery.com/tag/vegetable-garden/  http://visual.merriam-webster.com/plants-gardening/plants/leaf/structure-leaf.php leaf structure slide 24 http://visual.merriam-webster.com/plants-gardening/plants/leaf/structure-leaf.php  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leaf leaves slide 25 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leaf  http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/plants/leaf/ leaf layers slide 26 http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/plants/leaf/  http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/biocoach/photosynth/overview.html photosynthesis slide 31 http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/biocoach/photosynth/overview.html  http://www.organicfertilizersources.com/blog/organic-fertilizer-beyond-the-crap/these-bugs-will- eat-your-plants insects eating leaves slide 34 http://www.organicfertilizersources.com/blog/organic-fertilizer-beyond-the-crap/these-bugs-will- eat-your-plants  http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Monarch_caterpillar_eating_swan_plant_leaf.jpg monarch caterpillar slide 34 http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Monarch_caterpillar_eating_swan_plant_leaf.jpg  http://www.squidoo.com/coleus- plant?utm_source=google&utm_medium=imgres&utm_campaign=framebuster coleus plant slide 37 http://www.squidoo.com/coleus- plant?utm_source=google&utm_medium=imgres&utm_campaign=framebuster


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