11Parts of a SeedIn order for a seed to germinate (the process of a seed sprouting into a new plant) it needs.A seed must move from the flower to a place where it can sprout.Most seeds need water and warm temperatures to germinate.
12Parts of a SeedOnce the seedling begins to grow, it needs the right amount of light.The leaves of the growing plant need light to make oxygen.A seedling also needs oxygen from the air and nutrients from the soil.
19This is a flower.The pistil is the tall green stalk.This illustration does not reflect the anthers.
20A pollinator comes and deposits pollen which lands on the pistil. How does that help?A bee might go to one flower and get a little pollen on its back. If it goes to another flower of the same species, that pollen can land on the pistil.
21Pollen grains (yellow) are located on the top of the pistil. The pollen then travels down the pollen tube (yellow) until it reaches the ovaries.
22The ovary then fertilizes the egg. Fertilization is the joining of a female sex cell and a male sex cell into one cell.
23Ovary The ovary is a structure containing egg cells. It is the ovary that grows to produce the protective fruit.
25How Are Seeds Carried Away? Once a seed forms, it needs a place to grow.The best chance of survival is to be in its own space, away from the parent plant. Why?A parent plant may soak up water and nutrients the seedling needs from the soil.
26How Are Seeds Carried Away? Therefore, a seeds best chance of survival is when it is carried away, or dispersed, from the parent.Seeds disperse in many different ways.
27How Are Seeds Carried Away? Some plants scatter their own seeds.The protective, fleshy fruits explode to shoot their seeds away from the parent plant.Pea and bean plants keep their seeds in a pod. When the seeds are ripe and the pod has dried, the pod burst open and peas and beans are scattered.
28How Are Seeds Carried Away? Many seeds are carried by animals.The fleshy fruit may attract animals that eat the seeds along with the fruit.The seeds may fall to the ground as the animals eat the fruit.If the seeds are eaten, the animals will pass them out in their droppings.
29How Are Seeds Carried Away? Other seeds are carried by the wind or water.A dandelion seeds have a “parachute” of feathery hairs.They are light enough for the wind to carry them long distances.
30How Are Seeds Carried Away? Seeds may also become attached to human’s clothing and shoes.
31How Are Seeds Carried Away? Some seeds may also hitch a ride on an animal’s fur and fall off in some new place.
34FernsFerns are green plants which can capture energy from the sun through photosynthesis.They do not have seeds, but instead simply use spores to reproduce.
35Moss Plants Do not produce flowers. Do not produce seeds. They reproduce by creating spores.
36Spores A spore is a cell in a seedless plant. Plants such as mosses and ferns use spores to reproduce.Spores do not have sex cells.Each spore is produced by the parent plant.The parent plant sheds the spores locally.The spore-generating organs are frequently located on the undersides of leaves.
37Moss Spores The egg is fertilized. The fertilized egg grows into a thin stalk with a spore case on top.The spore case opens, the spores are released.Spores land on damp ground and may grow into new moss plants.The life cycle begins again.
38Fern SporesOn a fern, spores are found on the bottom side of the leaf.As the spore case matures and ripen, millions of spores are released and scattered into the air.When carried by wind currents, a small number of them fall on damp surfaces and soils.Here they form into a small, flat, kidney-shaped body.
39Fern Spores This body gets its food by pushing roots into the soil. Eventually, this plant bodygrows male and femaleorgans.Sperm from the male organfertilizes an egg from thefemale organ.This produces a new plant.The new plant produces spores,and the process begins again.
40Fern SporesThe yellow spores are unopened. The brown spores are opened.