Presentation on theme: "The Characteristics of Seed Plants"— Presentation transcript:
1The Characteristics of Seed Plants Chapter 8 – Section 3The Characteristics of Seed Plants
2What are Seed Plants? Seed plants outnumber seedless plants 10 to 1 Have vascular tissueUse pollen and seeds to reproduce
3Vascular TissueMeets the Challenges – stand up straight, supply all cells with food and water.Phloem – food moves through this tissueXylem – water and minerals travel through this tissue
4Pollen and SeedsDo not have to live in water as don’t have sperm that has to swimPollen-tiny structures that contain the cells that later become the spermSeeds are made when the sperm fertilizes the egg.Young plant inside a protective covering, Right conditions sprout breaks out of seed.
5Seed Structure – Figure 10 p. 264 3 parts Embryo – plant that develops from zygote Seed food – some stored in cotyledons (seed leaves in embryo) or outside the embryo Seed coat – outer covering (protects from drying out)
6Seed Dispersal- scattering of seeds Other organisms wasteBarbs that hook on other animalsWindEject from plant with force
7Seed Germination- when embryo begins to grow again and pushes out of seed Begins when seed absorbs water and begin to growRoots grow first downward, stem and leaves upwardSeedling- when you see the leavesDistance from parent needed
8Roots 3 Main functions Anchor a plant to ground Absorb water and minerals from the soilSometimes store food
9Types of Roots- Figure 13 p 267 Fibrous Root System- several root systems that form a dense tangled mass- grassTaproot Root System – One long thick root smaller branching off. dandelion
10Structure of Root-figure 13 p. 267 Tip round, covered by root cap (protects from injury from rocks as it grows)Root hairs absorb the water and minerals, help anchor plantVascular tissue –water moves to xylem and upwardPhloem – transports food from leaves to roots
11Stems – carries substances between roots and leaves supports holds up leaves to get sun
12Stem structure- figure p. 268 Herbaceous – no woodWoodyhard, rigidseveral layers,outer layer barkCambium – cells that divide to procduce phloem and xylem (wood part)All have phloem and xylem
13Annual Rings Made up of xylem Summer grow slow and make small rings Spring grow fast and make dark large rings
14LeavesCapture suns energy and carry out the food making process of photosynthesisCome in many different shapes
15Structure of Leaf- figure 16 p. 270 Surface layersProtect cellsVeins that contain xylem and phloemHave stomata (pores that open and close to control gases going in and out)CO2 in and H2O and Oxygen out.
16Leaf and Photosynthesis Upper surface has most cells with chloroplasts (chlorophyll in the chloroplasts trap sun’s energy)CO2 enters through stomataH2O through the xylem in stemSugar and Oxygen produced from CO2 and H20Oxygen out through stomataSugar through plant in phloem
17Controlling Water Loss Transpiration – water evaporates from plant’s leavesClose stomata when leaves start to dry out.