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The Characteristics of Seed Plants

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Presentation on theme: "The Characteristics of Seed Plants"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Characteristics of Seed Plants
Chapter 8 – Section 3 The Characteristics of Seed Plants

2 What are Seed Plants? Seed plants outnumber seedless plants 10 to 1
Have vascular tissue Use pollen and seeds to reproduce

3 Vascular Tissue Meets the Challenges – stand up straight, supply all cells with food and water. Phloem – food moves through this tissue Xylem – water and minerals travel through this tissue

4 Pollen and Seeds Do not have to live in water as don’t have sperm that has to swim Pollen-tiny structures that contain the cells that later become the sperm Seeds are made when the sperm fertilizes the egg. Young plant inside a protective covering, Right conditions sprout breaks out of seed.

5 Seed Structure – Figure 10 p. 264
3 parts Embryo – plant that develops from zygote Seed food – some stored in cotyledons (seed leaves in embryo) or outside the embryo Seed coat – outer covering (protects from drying out)

6 Seed Dispersal- scattering of seeds
Other organisms waste Barbs that hook on other animals Wind Eject from plant with force

7 Seed Germination- when embryo begins to grow again and pushes out of seed
Begins when seed absorbs water and begin to grow Roots grow first downward, stem and leaves upward Seedling- when you see the leaves Distance from parent needed

8 Roots 3 Main functions Anchor a plant to ground
Absorb water and minerals from the soil Sometimes store food

9 Types of Roots- Figure 13 p 267
Fibrous Root System- several root systems that form a dense tangled mass- grass Taproot Root System – One long thick root smaller branching off. dandelion

10 Structure of Root-figure 13 p. 267
Tip round, covered by root cap (protects from injury from rocks as it grows) Root hairs absorb the water and minerals, help anchor plant Vascular tissue –water moves to xylem and upward Phloem – transports food from leaves to roots

11 Stems – carries substances between roots and leaves supports
holds up leaves to get sun

12 Stem structure- figure p. 268
Herbaceous – no wood Woody hard, rigid several layers, outer layer bark Cambium – cells that divide to procduce phloem and xylem (wood part) All have phloem and xylem

13 Annual Rings Made up of xylem Summer grow slow and make small rings
Spring grow fast and make dark large rings

14 Leaves Capture suns energy and carry out the food making process of photosynthesis Come in many different shapes

15 Structure of Leaf- figure 16 p. 270
Surface layers Protect cells Veins that contain xylem and phloem Have stomata (pores that open and close to control gases going in and out) CO2 in and H2O and Oxygen out.

16 Leaf and Photosynthesis
Upper surface has most cells with chloroplasts (chlorophyll in the chloroplasts trap sun’s energy) CO2 enters through stomata H2O through the xylem in stem Sugar and Oxygen produced from CO2 and H20 Oxygen out through stomata Sugar through plant in phloem

17 Controlling Water Loss
Transpiration – water evaporates from plant’s leaves Close stomata when leaves start to dry out.

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