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Presentation on theme: "Plants."— Presentation transcript:

1 Plants

2 Plant Characteristics
Many celled Cell walls Chlorophyll cuticle

3 Evolution and Classification
Evolved from green algae First plants were small and lived close to water Non vascular: no specialized tissues to transport water liverworts Mosses Vascular plants: have tissues that can transport water (tubelike structures) / successfully grow on land Can produce Seeds and flower – important adaptations Examples are conebearing trees and flowering plants

4 Chemistry in Plants Photosynthesis:
Light (absorbed by chlorophyll) + water (roots) + CO2 (enters through stomates) makes glucose + water + oxygen

5 Nonflowering Plants Ex.’s mosses, ferns, horsetails, cone-bearing trees Life Cycle of Nonflowering Plant: Sporophyte: Non sexual stage produces spore fertilization Produces spores Produces sperm cells Gametophyte: sexual stage / produces egg and sperm

6 Bryophytes Mosses:attaches to the ground by small rhizoids (root-like structures).No true roots Water travels via osmosis Liverworts: found in wet areas of a forest or bog. Flat leaflike structures rhizoids

7 Nonflowering Vascular Plants
Can grow tall because of tubelike vascular tissues to carry food and water Can grow almost anywhere on land

8 Ferns Grow in forests Warm tropical or seasonal areas Small
True roots, stems (usually underground), and leaves (fronds) Contain vascular tissue Sporophyte (larger and lives longer) and gametophyte lifecycles

9 Horsetails Club Mosses
Life cycle similar to fern Club Mosses Have vascular tissue / are not mosses / tropical areas

10 Gymnosperms Nonflowering vascular plants that produce seeds
Conebearing trees (pine and redwood) Seed is for protecting and nourishing embryo Don’t need water for sperm to swim in to get to egg instead travel as dustlike particles in the air called Pollen

11 Groups of Gymnosperms Conifers (needle shaped leaves and seeds produced in cones) Cycads (remains of ancient forests) Gnetophytes (long straplike leaves and bears clusters of small cones on short stalks) Ginkgo (fan-shaped leaves and fleshy cones and leaves fall from tree in autumn)

12 conifers Cycads Gnetophytes Ginkgo

13 Characteristics of Flowering Plants
Angiosperms – produce seeds within a flower Evolved from gymnosperms Have vascular tissue and produce pollen Flowers contain sex organs Male sex organ makes pollen Female sex organ makes egg cells

14 Adaptations that help plants reproduce
Colorful and complex flowers – depend on insects, bats or hummingbirds to carry pollen. Characteristics that attract pollen carriers: Shape Scent Color Most flowers are grouped together in clusters some have only 1 single flower

15 Angiosperm Classification
2 groups based on number of seed cotyledons (leaflike parts of the plant embryo inside the seed) 1. Monocot: 1 cotyledon Parallel vein pattern Scattered bundles of vascular tissue in stem Fibrous roots Ex. Grasses, corn, tulips, palms

16 Angiosperm Classification
Dicots Two cotyledons Leaves have branching pattern of veins Bundles of vascular tissue are arranged in a ring. Large thick taproot Ex. Oak, maple, fruit trees Tomato plants, pea plants, sunflowers

17 Vascular Plant Systems
Xylem – a set of linked cells where water and minerals travel (from the root to the shoot system) Water is used in photosynthesis Water is lost through stomates = transpiration Phloem – transports glucose from leaves to other parts of plant

18 Root System Functions: Types: Support and anchor plant
Absorb water and minerals from soil Store glucose in the form of starch Types: Fibrous root Tap root

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