3PersonalityPattern of feeling, motives, and behavior that set people apart from one anotherPsychologists describe personality characteristics and explain how personality developsAlso try to predict how people will respond to life’s demands
4Trait Approach Trait: aspect of personality that is relatively stable Where do traits come from?
5Trait Approach Hippocrates Humors: yellow bile, blood, phlegm, and black bileTraits are a combination of different humorsGordon AllportTraits are building blocks of personalityBehavior is result of specific combination of traitsTraits are the predisposition to react in a specific way to a broad range of situationHelped identify over 18,000 words to describe personality
6Trait Approach Hans Eysenck Introversion vs. extroversion and emotional stability vs. instability and impulse control vs. psychoticThe first two factors create 4 combinations, related to the four basic temperaments recognized by ancient Greeks:Melancholic (introverted + unstable): sad, gloomyCholeric (extroverted + unstable): hot-tempered, irritablePhlegmatic (introverted + stable): sluggish, calmSanguine (extroverted + stable): cheerful, hopeful
8Five-factor model Five basic personality factors OCEAN Suggests that people are born with their personality which maturesBut personality is still influenced by culture
9Raymond Cattell Two categories of traits Surface traits: make up the visible areas of personalitySource traits: are the underlying characteristics of personality16 Personality FactorsTest identifying 16 personality factors (source traits)Used factor analysis to discover the 16 personality factors
10Cattell’s Personality Factors WarmthAbstractednessReasoningPrivatenessEmotional StabilityApprehensionDominanceOpenness to changeLivelinessSelf-relianceRule-consciousnessPerfectionismSocial BoldnessTensionSensitivityVigilance
12DiscussionAre personality traits set in stone or do they depend on the situation?Can we change our traits?Can we do it easily?Are our traits formed at birth? Or are they influenced by the environment?
13Psychoanalytic Approach All people undergo inner strugglesHumans have biological drives that conflict with laws and social conventionsPsychological problems are rooted in the unconscious
14Sigmund Freud Father of Psychoanalysis Used psychoanalysis to explore unconsciousPeople talk about any ideas or memories that pop into their mindAlso used hypnosis and dream analysis
15Id, Ego, and superego Id-basic drives Wants immediate gratification Ego-reasonTries to satisfy the demands of id and the warnings of superegoMediator, balance id and superegoSuperego-moral sense/conscienceWants to act in socially appropriate manner
16Stages of Development Freud’s Psychosexual Stages Stage Focus Personality develops in stagesChildren have conflicts at each stageFreud’s Psychosexual StagesStage FocusOral Pleasure centers on the mouth--(0-18 months) sucking, biting, chewingAnal Toilet training; coping with demands for (18-36 months) controlPhallic Sexual identity; physical differences; (3-6 years) coping with incestuous sexual feelingsLatency Dormant sexual feelings(6 to puberty)Genital Maturation of sexual interests(puberty on)
17Psychoanalysis Batman/Bruce Wayne What happened in his childhood? Why is this trauma important?How did this impact him?How did he handle it well?How did he handle it poorly?Is he more Batman or Bruce Wayne?Why is his bat phobia important?What is the impact of his relationship to his parents?
19Psychoanalytic Approach Carl JungCollective unconscious-store of shared human conceptsArchetypes-basic concepts in collective unconsciousHero, wise old man, trickster, etc.Alfred AdlerInferiority complex-feelings of inadequacy and insecurityErik EriksonEight stages of developmentNamed after traits developed during each stage
21Myers-Briggs TestStarted as test during WWII to help women decide what job type would fit their personalityBased on Jung’s four principal psychological functions:Sensation, Intuition, Feeling, ThinkingTest has four pairsExtraversion-IntroversionSensing-IntuitionThinking-FeelingJudging-Perception
23Extraverted Characteristics Introverted Characteristics Act first, think/reflect laterFeel deprived when cutoff from interaction with the outside worldUsually open to and motivated by outside world of people and thingsEnjoy wide variety and change in people relationshipsIntroverted CharacteristicsThink/reflect first, then ActRegularly require an amount of "private time" to recharge batteriesMotivated internally, mind is sometimes so active it is "closed" to outside worldPrefer one-to-one communication and relationships Choose which best fits: Extraversion (E) Introversion (I)
24Sensing Characteristics Intuitive Characteristics Mentally live in the Now, attending to present opportunitiesUsing common sense and creating practical solutions is automatic-instinctualMemory recall is rich in detail of facts and past eventsBest improvise from past experienceLike clear and concrete information; dislike guessing when facts are "fuzzy"Intuitive CharacteristicsMentally live in the Future, attending to future possibilitiesUsing imagination and creating/inventing new possibilities is automatic-instinctualMemory recall emphasizes patterns, contexts, and connectionsBest improvise from theoretical understandingComfortable with ambiguous, fuzzy data and with guessing its meaning. Choose which best fits: Sensing (S) iNtuition (N)
25Thinking Characteristics Feeling Characteristics Instinctively search for facts and logic in a decision situation.Naturally notices tasks and work to be accomplished.Easily able to provide an objective and critical analysis.Accept conflict as a natural, normal part of relationships with people.Feeling CharacteristicsInstinctively employ personal feelings and impact on people in decision situationsNaturally sensitive to people needs and reactions.Naturally seek consensus and popular opinions.Unsettled by conflict; have almost a toxic reaction to disharmony.Choose which best fits: Thinking (T) Feeling (F)
26Judging Characteristics Perceiving Characteristics Plan many of the details in advance before moving into action.Focus on task-related action; complete meaningful segments before moving on.Work best and avoid stress when able to keep ahead of deadlines.Naturally use targets, dates and standard routines to manage life.Perceiving CharacteristicsComfortable moving into action without a plan; plan on-the-go.Like to multitask, have variety, mix work and play.Naturally tolerant of time pressure; work best close to the deadlines.Instinctively avoid commitments which interfere with flexibility, freedom and varietyChoose which best fits: Judging (J) Perceiving (P)
28Learning Approach Behaviorism John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner Outside forces (not traits or inner conflict) shape preferences and behaviorLook at behavior instead of mindEnvironment shapes peoples wantsSocialization-people learn what is acceptable and desired in their culture and adopt that as part of their personality
29Stanford prison experiment Conducted by Philip Zimbardo; 197124 college studentsPlanned 2 week experiment, ended after 6 daysPsychological effects of being a prison guard or prisonerGoal was to prove that inherent personality traits are the source of abusive behavior in prisonsConclusion-the situation rather than personality caused the behaviors
30Learning Approach Social-Learning Theory People act to influence the environmentLearning through observationInternal Factors:SkillsValuesGoalsExpectationsSelf-efficacy expectationsPersonBehaviorEnvironment
31Humanistic Approach Abraham Maslow Search for self-actualization Takes risks to reach self-actualization
32Humanistic Approach Carl Rogers Self-Theory People shape their personality through free choice and actionSelf-ConceptViewing yourself as an individualCongruence-consistency between self-concept and experiencesCannot live fully according to the wishes of others and remain true to ourselves
33Sociocultural Approach Individualism vs. CollectivismIndividualists-identify self based on personal identityCollectivists-identify self based on group they belong toHelps account for personality differences between individualistic Western nations and collectivist nations elsewhere
34Sociocultural Approach AcculturationProcess of adapting to a new cultureCulture influences personality
36Personality TestsStandardization-test administered and scored the same way every timeReliability-measure of consistencyValidity-extent that a test measures what it is supposed toObjective test-has standardized set of items in form of questionnaireProjective tests-open-ended questions with no specified answers
37Rorschach Ink Blots (projective test) Common responses: bat, butterfly, mothThis is card 1 of 10Reveals clues as to how people respond to new and stressful tasks
38Rorschach Ink Blots (projective test) Common responses: human heads/facesThis is card 7 of 10Card is associated with femininity;Difficulty responding may relate to conflict with female figures in life
40Questions to ask Is the test based on research? Who wrote the test? Why was the test created?Job hiring, psychological problems, therapy, entertainment?Do the questions relate to what is being measured?Do the results describe personality?Would people answer the questions falsely?