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Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology David Shier Jackie Butler Ricki Lewis Power Points prepared by Melanie Waite-Altringer Biology Faculty.

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Presentation on theme: "Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology David Shier Jackie Butler Ricki Lewis Power Points prepared by Melanie Waite-Altringer Biology Faculty."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology David Shier Jackie Butler Ricki Lewis Power Points prepared by Melanie Waite-Altringer Biology Faculty Member of Anoka-Ramsey Community College Copyright  The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

2 Chapter 1 Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology

3 Introduction: A. Early students of anatomy and physiology were most likely concerned with treating illnesses and injuries. B.Early healers relied on superstitions and magic. Later, herbs were used to treat certain ailments. C.Study of medicine with standardized terms in Greek and 3

4 Anatomy and Physiology A.Anatomy deals with the structure (morphology)of the body 1.Observation and Dissection 2.Gross Anatomy (Macroscopic) 3.Microscopic Anatomy a. Cytology b. Histology B.Physiology studies the functions 1.Experimentation a.Cell physiology, including chemical and molecular processes within and between cells. b.Special physiology, the study of specific organs such as the heart. c.Systemic physiology, the cooperative functions of all the organs in an organ system. We will use a systemic physiology approach in this class. d.Pathological physiology, the effects of diseases on organs and organ systems. C.Two disciplines are closely interrelated. 4

5 Levels of Organization: A.Human body is the sum of its parts and these parts can be studied at a variety of levels of organization. 1. Atoms are the simplest level. 2. Two or more atoms comprise a molecule. 3. Macromolecules are large, biologically important molecules. 4.Organelles are aggregates of macromolecules used to carry out a specific function in the cell. 5. Cells are the basic living unit. 6.Tissues are groups of cells functioning together. 7.Groups of tissues form organs. 8.Groups of organs function together as organ systems. 9.Organ systems functioning together make up an organism. 5

6 Maintenance of Life A. Requirements of Organisms: 1. Life depends on the availability of the following: a. Water b. Food c. Oxygen d. Heat (temperature: measure of the degree of heat) e. Pressure (both atmospheric & hydrostatic) 2.Both the quality and quantity of these factors are important. B.Homeostasis 1. Maintenance of a stable internal environment = homeostasis. 2. Homeostasis is regulated through control systems which have receptors, a set point and effectors in common. Examples include: a. Homeostatic mechanisms regulate body temperature b. Pressure-sensitive receptors toregulate blood pressure. 3. Many homeostatic controls are negative feedback mechanisms. a. Homeostatic mechanisms are used to keep body levels within a normal range; normal ranges can vary from one individual to the next. 6

7 Organization of the Human Body A. Divided into Portions, Cavities, and Membranes B.Body PORTIONS: 1. Axial portion (head, neck, and trunk) 2. Appendicular portion (upper and lower limbs). 7

8 Organization of the Human Body C.Body CAVITITES: 1. Axial portion (head, neck, and trunk) a. cranial cavity 1. oral cavity 2. nasal cavity (sinuses) 3. orbital cavities 4. middle ear cavities. b. vertebral canal. c. thoracic cavity 1. divided by the mediastinum (rt /lt) d. abdominopelvic cavity 2. Organs within the thoracic and adominopelvic cavities are called viscera. 3. A broad, thin muscle called the diaphragm separates the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities. 8

9 9 D. Body MEMBRANES Thoracic and Abdominopelvic Membranes: 1. Parietal attaches to wall cavity and Visceral covers the internal organ. a. Thoracic cavity is lined with pleural membranes 1) parietal pleura 2) visceral pleura b. Heart is surrounded by pericardial membranes. 1) parietal pericardium 2) visceral pericardium. c. Peritoneal membranes line the abdominopelvic cavity 1) parietal peritoneum 2) visceral peritoneum Organization of the Human Body

10 10 E. Organ Systems 1. Body Covering a. The integumentary system, 1) skin, hair, nails, and various glands 2) protects underlying tissues, helps regulate body temperature, senses changes, and synthesizes certain products. 2.Support and Movement a. The skeletal system 1) bones, cartilage,and ligaments 2) supports, protects, provides frameworks, stores inorganic salts, and houses blood-forming tissues. b.The muscular system 1) muscles 2) movement, posture, and body heat. Organization of the Human Body

11 11 E. Organ Systems 3.Integration and Coordination a. The nervous system 1) brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sense organs 2) integrates incoming information from receptors and sends impulses to muscles and glands. b. The endocrine systemthe 1) glands that secrete hormones (thyroid, pituitary) 2) helps to integrate metabolic functions. 4. Transport a. The cardiovascular system, 1) heart and blood vessels 2) distributes oxygen and nutrients throughout the body while removing wastes from the cells. b. The lymphatic system, 1) lymphatic vessels / nodes, thymus, and spleen 2) drains excess tissue fluid and provides immunity. Organization of the Human Body

12 12 E. Organ Systems 5.Absorption and Excretion a.The digestive system 1) mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, and accessory organs 2) receives, breaks down, and absorbs nutrients. b. The respiratory system 1) trachea, bronchioles, lungs 2) exchanges gases between the blood and air and is made up of the lungs and passageways. c. The urinary system, consisting of 1) kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra, 2) removes wastes from the blood and helps to maintain water and electrolyte balance. Organization of the Human Body

13 13 E. Organ Systems 6.Reproduction a. The reproductive system produces new organisms. 1) The male reproductive system a) testes, epididymis, penis, accessory organs b) produce / conduct sperm to the penis. 2) The female reproductive system a) ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, and external genitalia b) fertilization and houses the developing offspring. Organization of the Human Body

14 14 A.Anatomical position : body erect, face forward, upper limbs at sides with palm forward. B.Relative Positions: 1.Terms of relative position describe the location of one body part with respect to another. 2.Terms of relative position include: superior, inferior, anterior, posterior, medial, lateral, bilateral, ipsilateral, contralateral, proximal, distal, superficial peripheral, and deep. Anatomical Terminology

15 15 A.Anatomical position : body erect, face forward, upper limbs at sides with palm forward. B.Relative Positions: 1.Terms of relative position describe the location of one body part with respect to another. 2.Terms of relative position include: superior, inferior, anterior, posterior, medial, lateral, bilateral, ipsilateral, contralateral, proximal, distal, superficial (peripheral), and deep. Copyright  The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Anatomical Terminology

16 16 A.Anatomical position : body erect, face forward, upper limbs at sides with palm forward. B.Relative Positions: C. Body Sections: 1.A sagittal section divides the body into right and left portions. If it passes along the midline and divides the body into equal parts it is a median. A section lateral to the midline is parasagittal. 2.A transverse (horizontal) section divides the body into superior and inferior portions. 3.A frontal (coronal) section divides the body into anterior and posterior sections. Copyright  The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Anatomical Terminology

17 17 A.Anatomical position : body erect, face forward, upper limbs at sides with palm forward. B.Relative Positions: C. Body Sections: D.Body Regions 1.The abdominal area can be divided into nine regions (epigastric, left and right hypochondriac, umbilical, left and right lumbar, hypogastric, and left and right iliac) 2. Four abdominal quadrants 1) Upper Right / Left 2) Lower Right / Left Copyright  The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Anatomical Terminology

18 18 A.Anatomical position : body erect, face forward, upper limbs at sides with palm forward. B.Relative Positions: C. Body Sections: D.Body Regions: E. Body Parts: Use image to guide learning. Copyright  The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Anatomical Terminology

19 Fig01.17 Otic (ear) Cervical (neck) Acromial (point of shoulder) Mammary (breast) Brachial (arm) Antecubital (front of elbow) Antebrachial (forearm) Genital (reproductive organs) Cephalic (head) Orbital (eye cavity) Mental (chin) Sternal Pectoral (chest) Inguinal (groin) Coxal (hip) Umbilical (navel) Pedal (foot) Occipital (back of head) Acromial (point of shoulder) Brachial (arm) Dorsum (back) Cubital (elbow) Gluteal (buttocks) Perineal Femoral (thigh) Popliteal (back of knee) Plantar (sole) (a)(b) Patellar (front of knee) Vertebral (spinal column) Sacral (between hips) Lumbar (lower back) Abdominal (abdomen) Carpal (wrist) Palmar (palm) Digital (finger) Nasal (nose) Oral (mouth) Frontal (forehead) Buccal (cheek) Tarsal (instep) Digital (toe) Axillary (armpit) Crural (leg) Sural (calf) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.


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