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DLT’s: 8 – 12 Chapter 1: The Human Body: An Orientation Unit 1: Organization of the Body.

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Presentation on theme: "DLT’s: 8 – 12 Chapter 1: The Human Body: An Orientation Unit 1: Organization of the Body."— Presentation transcript:

1 DLT’s: 8 – 12 Chapter 1: The Human Body: An Orientation Unit 1: Organization of the Body

2 The Language of Anatomy To prevent misunderstanding, anatomists use universally accepted terms to identify body structures precisely and with a minimum of words. The language of anatomy is presented and explained here and in chapter 1 of your textbook.

3 DLT 8: I can describe the anatomical position.  Body erect, feet slightly apart, palms facing forward, thumbs point away from body

4 DLT 9: I can use correct anatomical terms to describe body directions, regions, and body planes or sections. Directional Terms  Superior and inferior – toward and away from the head, respectively  Anterior and posterior – toward the front and back of the body  Medial, lateral, and intermediate – toward the midline, away from the midline, and between a more medial and lateral structure  Proximal and distal – closer to and farther from the origin of the body part  Superficial and deep – toward and away from the body surface

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7 Regional Terms: Anterior View Nasal (nose) Oral (mouth) Cervical (neck) Frontal (forehead) Orbital (eye) Buccal (cheek) Mental (chin) (a) Anterior

8 Regional Terms: Anterior View Nasal (nose) Oral (mouth) Cervical (neck) Acromial (point of shoulder) Axillary (armpit) Brachial (arm) Antecubital (front of elbow) Abdominal (abdomen) Pelvic (pelvis) Antebrachial (forearm) Carpal (wrist) Palmar (palm) Pollex (thumb) Digital (fingers) Mammary (breast) Frontal (forehead) Orbital (eye) Buccal (cheek) Sternal (breastbone) Thoracic (chest) Mental (chin) Umbilical (navel) (a) Anterior

9 Regional Terms: Anterior View Nasal (nose) Oral (mouth) Cervical (neck) Acromial (point of shoulder) Axillary (armpit) Brachial (arm) Antecubital (front of elbow) Abdominal (abdomen) Pelvic (pelvis) Antebrachial (forearm) Carpal (wrist) Palmar (palm) Pollex (thumb) Digital (fingers) Pubic (genital region) Patellar (anterior knee) Crural (leg) Tarsal (ankle) Pedal (foot) Digital (toes) Inguinal (groin) Coxal (hip) Femoral (thigh) Fibular, or peroneal (side of leg) Hallux (great toe) Mammary (breast) Frontal (forehead) Orbital (eye) Buccal (cheek) Sternal (breastbone) Thoracic (chest) Mental (chin) Umbilical (navel) (a) Anterior

10 Regional Terms: Posterior View Otic (ear) Occipital (back of head or base of skull) Cephalic (head) (b) Posterior

11 Regional Terms: Posterior View Brachial (arm) Otic (ear) Occipital (back of head or base of skull) Acromial (point of shoulder) Vertebral (spinal column) Scapular (shoulder blade) Dorsum or dorsal (back) Olecranal (back of elbow) Lumbar (loin) Sacral (between hips) Manus (hand) Upper extremity Cephalic (head) (b) Posterior

12 Regional Terms: Posterior View Brachial (arm) Otic (ear) Occipital (back of head or base of skull) Acromial (point of shoulder) Vertebral (spinal column) Scapular (shoulder blade) Dorsum or dorsal (back) Olecranal (back of elbow) Lumbar (loin) Sacral (between hips) Gluteal (buttock) Perineal (region between the anus and external genitalia) Femoral (thigh) Popliteal (back of knee) Sural (calf) Calcaneal (heel) Plantar (sole) Manus (hand) Upper extremity Cephalic (head) Lower extremity (b) Posterior

13 Body Planes  Sagittal – divides the body into right and left parts  Midsagittal or medial – sagittal plane that lies on the midline  Frontal or coronal – divides the body into anterior and posterior parts  Transverse or horizontal (cross section) – divides the body into superior and inferior parts  Oblique section – cuts made diagonally

14 Body Planes

15 Anatomical Variability  Humans vary slightly in both external and internal anatomy  Over 90% of all anatomical structures match textbook descriptions, but:  Nerves or blood vessels may be somewhat out of place  Small muscles may be missing  Extreme anatomical variations are seldom seen

16 DLT 10: I can locate and name the major body cavities and their subdivisions, and list the major organs contained within them.  Dorsal cavity protects the nervous system, and is divided into two subdivisions  Cranial cavity – within the skull; encases the brain  Vertebral cavity – runs within the vertebral column; encases the spinal cord  Ventral cavity houses the internal organs (viscera), and is divided into two subdivisions  Thoracic  Abdominopelvic

17 Body Cavities Cranial cavity (contains brain) Dorsal body cavity Diaphragm Abdominal cavity (contains digestive viscera) Pelvic cavity (contains bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum) Vertebral cavity (contains spinal cord) Key: Dorsal body cavity Ventral body cavity Thoracic cavity (contains heart and lungs) (a) Lateral view

18 Body Cavities Ventral body cavity (thoracic and abdomino- pelvic cavities) Abdomino- pelvic cavity Superior mediastinum Pleural cavity Cranial cavity Vertebral cavity Pericardial cavity within the mediastinum Diaphragm Abdominal cavity (contains digestive viscera) Pelvic cavity (contains bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum) Thoracic cavity (contains heart and lungs) (b) Anterior view Key: Dorsal body cavity Ventral body cavity

19 Body Cavities  Thoracic cavity is subdivided into two pleural cavities, the mediastinum, and the pericardial cavity  Pleural cavities – each houses a lung  Mediastinum – contains the pericardial cavity; surrounds the remaining thoracic organs  Pericardial cavity – encloses the heart

20 Body Cavities  The abdominopelvic cavity is separated from the superior thoracic cavity by the dome-shaped diaphragm  It is composed of two subdivisions  Abdominal cavity – contains the stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, and other organs  Pelvic cavity – lies within the pelvis and contains the bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum

21 DLT 11: I can name the serous membranes and indicate their common function. Ventral Body Cavity Membranes  Parietal serosa lines internal body walls  Visceral serosa covers the internal organs  Serous fluid separates the serosae

22 Serous Membrane Relationship

23 Heart Serosae

24 Other Body Cavities  Oral and digestive – mouth and cavities of the digestive organs  Nasal –located within and posterior to the nose  Orbital – house the eyes  Middle ear – contains bones (ossicles) that transmit sound vibrations  Synovial – joint cavities

25 Other Body Cavities

26 DLT 12: I can name the nine regions or four quadrants of the abdominopelvic cavity and list the organs they contain. Abdominopelvic Regions

27 Organs of the Abdominopelvic Regions

28 Abdominopelvic Quadrants  Right upper  Left upper  Right lower  Left lower

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