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Unit 1: Intro to Anatomy Chapter 1.2

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1 Unit 1: Intro to Anatomy Chapter 1.2
Anatomical Terms Unit 1: Intro to Anatomy Chapter 1.2

2 Anatomic variation Not everyone is exactly the same
Different races, hair color, eye color, sex, height, body type etc. People have different anatomy! What is “normal” or “average”? Male: 22 years old, 70 Kg (154 Lbs) Female: 22 years old, 58 Kg (128 Lbs)

3 Directional Terms

4 Directional Terms Used to describe the “location” or “direction” of one organ compared to another More “scientific” way of saying that your heart is “above your stomach, and in front of your lungs”

5 Anatomical position Standing straight up, feet flat on the ground, arms at your side, and palms facing forward - It is from this position that the rest of the anatomical terms will be derived

6 Directional Terms Superior: “above” something else
“Your brain is superior to your heart” Inferior: “below” something else “your kidneys are inferior to your lungs”

7 Anterior (Ventral): towards your front
Your nose is anterior to your ears. Posterior/Dorsal: towards your back Your ears are posterior to your nose.

8 Let’s Review The nails are ______ (dorsal or ventral) in the anatomical position. ANSWER: Dorsal - recall that the anatomical position calls for your palms to face forward…your nails would face your back The sternum is ____ (superior or inferior) to your mouth. ANSWER: Inferior

9 Proximal: closer to the trunk or attachment point
The elbow is proximal to the shoulder. The knee is proximal to the hip. Distal: Farther from the trunk or attachment point The wrist is distal to the shoulder. The ankle is distal to the hip.

10 Central – toward the brain or spinal cord
The spinal cord is central to the limbs Peripheral – away from the brain or spinal cord (toward the limbs) The arms are peripheral to the spinal cord

11 Superficial: Close to the body surface (when looking from the inside towards the skin)
“You can see superficial bruises because they’re on the surface” Deep: Closer to the inside of the body (farther from the surface of the body) “Bones are deep to the muscle”

12 Medial - Towards the middle
“Your heart is medial to your lungs” “Your nose is medial to your ears” Lateral: Away from the middle (towards a side) “Your arms are lateral to your heart” “Your ears are lateral to your nose”

13 Supine = Body laying face up
“when you are laying on your back you are supine” Prone = Body laying face down “when you are laying on stomach you are prone”

14 Planes of the Body

15 Planes of the Body Imaginary flat surface passing through the body
Planes are often used in directions for dissections or as reference in figures

16 Sagittal (Median) Plane
Divides into left and right portions Midsaggital plane - passes through the midline of the body Parasaggital plane – a cut that does not pass through the midline

17 Frontal (Coronal) Plane
Divides body into anterior and posterior sections

18 Transverse (Horizontal) Plane
Divides the body into superior and inferior portions Divides the body horizontally

19 Regions of the Body

20 Axial Region – Cephalic (Head)
ANTERIOR Cephalic - head Frontal – forehead Orbital – eye Buccal – cheek Mental – chin Facial – on your face POSTERIOR Occipital

21 Axial Region – Cervical (Neck)
Cervical: front of your neck Nuchal: back of your neck

22 Axial Region – Torso or Thoracic
ANTERIOR Celiac - abdomen Mammary – breast Sternal - area in the center of your chest, the sternum Pectoral - area around your breast Costal - ribs Inguinal – groin Genital – reproductive organs Coxal - hip Celiac (abdomen) Mammary (breast) Costal (rib)

23 Axial Region – Torso or Thoracic
POSTERIOR Dorsum: the back Vertebral: area of your spine (on your back) Interscapular: area between both of your shoulder blades (on your back) Lumbar: lower back Sacral: between hips Perineal: between the anus and the pubic arch Interscapular (between shoulder blades)

24 Appendicular Region – Upper Limb
Antebrachium (forearm) Axillary (armpit) Digital (fingers) Acromial - point of shoulder Brachial - arm Antecubital – front of elbow Cubital - elbow Antebrachium - forearm Palmer - palm Axillary - Armpit Digital - fingers

25 Appendicular Region – Lower Limb
Gluteal – buttocks Femoral – thigh Popliteal – back of knee Patellar – knee Cural – leg Plantar – sole of foot Pedal – foot

26 Body Cavities

27 Anterior Cavity Posterior Cavity
Body Cavities Anterior Cavity thoracic cavity & abdominopelvic cavity diaphragm (a muscle) separates the two cavities Posterior Cavity cranial cavity & vertebral cavity

28 Posterior (Dorsal) Body Cavity
Cranial Cavity Skull encloses the brain Vertebral Cavity Vertebrae enclose the spinal cord

29 Anterior (Ventral) Body Cavity
Thoracic Cavity Abdominopelvic Cavity Pleural Cavity – lungs Pericardial Cavity – heart Mediastinum – thymus, vessels from heart Abdominal Cavity – digestive organs, kidneys Pelvic Cavity – bladder, rectum, reproductive organs

30 Cranial Thoracic Posterior Diaphragm Vertebral Abdominal Pelvic

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