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Anatomical Position  Body erect, feet slightly apart, palms facing forward, thumbs point away from body Figure 1.7a.

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Presentation on theme: "Anatomical Position  Body erect, feet slightly apart, palms facing forward, thumbs point away from body Figure 1.7a."— Presentation transcript:

1 Anatomical Position  Body erect, feet slightly apart, palms facing forward, thumbs point away from body Figure 1.7a

2 Directional Terms  Superior and inferior – toward and away from the head, respectively  Anterior and posterior – toward the front and back of the body  Medial, lateral, and intermediate – toward the midline, away from the midline, and between a more medial and lateral structure  Superior and inferior – toward and away from the head, respectively  Anterior and posterior – toward the front and back of the body  Medial, lateral, and intermediate – toward the midline, away from the midline, and between a more medial and lateral structure

3 Directional Terms  Proximal and distal – closer to and farther from the origin of the body part  Superficial and deep – toward and away from the body surface  Proximal and distal – closer to and farther from the origin of the body part  Superficial and deep – toward and away from the body surface

4 Directional Terms Table 1.1a

5 Directional Terms Table 1.1b

6 Regional Terms: Anterior View Figure 1.7a Nasal (nose) Oral (mouth) Cervical (neck) Frontal (forehead) Orbital (eye) Buccal (cheek) Mental (chin) (a) Anterior

7 Regional Terms: Anterior View Figure 1.7a Nasal (nose) Oral (mouth) Cervical (neck) Acromial (point of shoulder) Axillary (armpit) Brachial (arm) Antecubital (front of elbow) Abdominal (abdomen) Pelvic (pelvis) Antebrachial (forearm) Carpal (wrist) Palmar (palm) Pollex (thumb) Digital (fingers) Mammary (breast) Frontal (forehead) Orbital (eye) Buccal (cheek) Sternal (breastbone) Thoracic (chest) Mental (chin) Umbilical (navel) (a) Anterior

8 Regional Terms: Anterior View Figure 1.7a Nasal (nose) Oral (mouth) Cervical (neck) Acromial (point of shoulder) Axillary (armpit) Brachial (arm) Antecubital (front of elbow) Abdominal (abdomen) Pelvic (pelvis) Antebrachial (forearm) Carpal (wrist) Palmar (palm) Pollex (thumb) Digital (fingers) Pubic (genital region) Patellar (anterior knee) Crural (leg) Tarsal (ankle) Pedal (foot) Digital (toes) Inguinal (groin) Coxal (hip) Femoral (thigh) Fibular, or peroneal (side of leg) Hallux (great toe) Mammary (breast) Frontal (forehead) Orbital (eye) Buccal (cheek) Sternal (breastbone) Thoracic (chest) Mental (chin) Umbilical (navel) (a) Anterior

9 Regional Terms: Posterior View Figure 1.7b Otic (ear) Occipital (back of head or base of skull) Cephalic (head) (b) Posterior

10 Regional Terms: Posterior View Figure 1.7b Brachial (arm) Otic (ear) Occipital (back of head or base of skull) Acromial (point of shoulder) Vertebral (spinal column) Scapular (shoulder blade) Dorsum or dorsal (back) Olecranal (back of elbow) Lumbar (loin) Sacral (between hips) Manus (hand) Upper extremity Cephalic (head) (b) Posterior

11 Regional Terms: Posterior View Figure 1.7b Brachial (arm) Otic (ear) Occipital (back of head or base of skull) Acromial (point of shoulder) Vertebral (spinal column) Scapular (shoulder blade) Dorsum or dorsal (back) Olecranal (back of elbow) Lumbar (loin) Sacral (between hips) Gluteal (buttock) Perineal (region between the anus and external genitalia) Femoral (thigh) Popliteal (back of knee) Sural (calf) Calcaneal (heel) Plantar (sole) Manus (hand) Upper extremity Cephalic (head) Lower extremity (b) Posterior

12 Body Planes  Sagittal – divides the body into right and left parts  Midsagittal or medial – sagittal plane that lies on the midline  Frontal or coronal – divides the body into anterior and posterior parts  Transverse or horizontal (cross section) – divides the body into superior and inferior parts  Oblique section – cuts made diagonally  Sagittal – divides the body into right and left parts  Midsagittal or medial – sagittal plane that lies on the midline  Frontal or coronal – divides the body into anterior and posterior parts  Transverse or horizontal (cross section) – divides the body into superior and inferior parts  Oblique section – cuts made diagonally

13 Body Planes Figure 1.8

14 Anatomical Variability  Humans vary slightly in both external and internal anatomy  Over 90% of all anatomical structures match textbook descriptions, but:  Nerves or blood vessels may be somewhat out of place  Small muscles may be missing  Extreme anatomical variations are seldom seen  Humans vary slightly in both external and internal anatomy  Over 90% of all anatomical structures match textbook descriptions, but:  Nerves or blood vessels may be somewhat out of place  Small muscles may be missing  Extreme anatomical variations are seldom seen

15 Body Cavities  Dorsal cavity protects the nervous system, and is divided into two subdivisions  Cranial cavity – within the skull; encases the brain  Vertebral cavity – runs within the vertebral column; encases the spinal cord  Ventral cavity houses the internal organs (viscera), and is divided into two subdivisions  Thoracic  Abdominopelvic  Dorsal cavity protects the nervous system, and is divided into two subdivisions  Cranial cavity – within the skull; encases the brain  Vertebral cavity – runs within the vertebral column; encases the spinal cord  Ventral cavity houses the internal organs (viscera), and is divided into two subdivisions  Thoracic  Abdominopelvic

16 Body Cavities Figure 1.9a Cranial cavity (contains brain) Dorsal body cavity Diaphragm Abdominal cavity (contains digestive viscera) Pelvic cavity (contains bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum) Vertebral cavity (contains spinal cord) Key: Dorsal body cavity Ventral body cavity Thoracic cavity (contains heart and lungs) (a) Lateral view

17 Body Cavities Figure 1.9b Ventral body cavity (thoracic and abdomino- pelvic cavities) Abdomino- pelvic cavity Superior mediastinum Pleural cavity Cranial cavity Vertebral cavity Pericardial cavity within the mediastinum Diaphragm Abdominal cavity (contains digestive viscera) Pelvic cavity (contains bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum) Thoracic cavity (contains heart and lungs) (b) Anterior view Key: Dorsal body cavity Ventral body cavity

18 Body Cavities  Thoracic cavity is subdivided into two pleural cavities, the mediastinum, and the pericardial cavity  Pleural cavities – each houses a lung  Mediastinum – contains the pericardial cavity; surrounds the remaining thoracic organs  Pericardial cavity – encloses the heart  Thoracic cavity is subdivided into two pleural cavities, the mediastinum, and the pericardial cavity  Pleural cavities – each houses a lung  Mediastinum – contains the pericardial cavity; surrounds the remaining thoracic organs  Pericardial cavity – encloses the heart

19 Body Cavities  The abdominopelvic cavity is separated from the superior thoracic cavity by the dome-shaped diaphragm  It is composed of two subdivisions  Abdominal cavity – contains the stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, and other organs  Pelvic cavity – lies within the pelvis and contains the bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum  The abdominopelvic cavity is separated from the superior thoracic cavity by the dome-shaped diaphragm  It is composed of two subdivisions  Abdominal cavity – contains the stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, and other organs  Pelvic cavity – lies within the pelvis and contains the bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum

20 Ventral Body Cavity Membranes  Parietal serosa lines internal body walls  Visceral serosa covers the internal organs  Serous fluid separates the serosae  Parietal serosa lines internal body walls  Visceral serosa covers the internal organs  Serous fluid separates the serosae

21 Serous Membrane Relationship Figure 1.10a

22 Heart Serosae Figure 1.10b

23 Other Body Cavities  Oral and digestive – mouth and cavities of the digestive organs  Nasal –located within and posterior to the nose  Orbital – house the eyes  Middle ear – contains bones (ossicles) that transmit sound vibrations  Synovial – joint cavities  Oral and digestive – mouth and cavities of the digestive organs  Nasal –located within and posterior to the nose  Orbital – house the eyes  Middle ear – contains bones (ossicles) that transmit sound vibrations  Synovial – joint cavities

24 Other Body Cavities Figure 1.13

25 Abdominopelvic Regions Figure 1.11a

26 Organs of the Abdominopelvic Regions Figure 1.11b

27 Abdominopelvic Quadrants  Right upper  Left upper  Right lower  Left lower  Right upper  Left upper  Right lower  Left lower Figure 1.12


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