2Chapter Outline Social Isolation and Socialization Theories of Childhood SocializationAgents of SocializationSocialization Across the Life Course
3Socialization The process by which people learn their culture: Entering and disengaging from a succession of roles.Becoming aware of themselves as they interact with others.
4Social Isolation and Socialization Studies show that children raised in isolation do not develop normally.This corroborates the view that social interaction unleashes human potential.
5Theories of Childhood Socialization: Freud Proposed the first social-scientific interpretation of emergence of the self:Id - the part of the self that demands immediate gratification.Superego - personal conscienceEgo - balances the conflicting needs of the pleasure-seeking id and the restraining superego.
6Criticisms of Freud’s Analysis Connections between early childhood development and adult personality are more complex than Freud assumed.Many sociologists criticize Freud for gender bias in his analysis of male and female sexuality.Sociologists often criticize Freud for neglecting socialization after childhood.
7Cooley- “looking-glass self” When we interact with others, they gesture and react to us.We can imagine how we appear to them.We judge how others evaluate us.From these judgments we develop a self-concept.
8Mead’s Four Stages of Development: Role Taking Children learn to use language and other symbols by imitating important people in their lives.Children pretend to be other people.
9Mead’s Four Stages of Development: Role Taking About the age of 7, children play games that require them to take the role of several other people.Once a child can think in this way, she can begin the fourth stage, which involves taking the role of the generalized other.
10Gilligan and Gender Differences Sociological factors help explain differences in the sense of self that boys and girls develop.Parents and teachers pass on different cultural standards to boys and girls.
11Polling QuestionOf the socialization theories, which one do you think offers the best explanation for why people develop as they do?MeadGoffmanCooleyFreudPiaget
12Agents of Socialization FamiliesSchoolsPeer GroupsMass Media
13Hidden CurriculumTeaches students what will be expected of them in society after they graduate.Teaches them how to be conventionally “good citizens.”
14Hidden Curriculum A successful hidden curriculum teaches: punctuality respect for authorityimportance of competition in leading to excellent performanceand other conformist behaviors and beliefs that are expected of good citizens, conventionally defined.
15Self-fulfilling Prophecy An expectation that helps bring about the result it predicts.Example: Believing school won’t help you get ahead may cause you to perform poorly in school and you are more likely to end up near the bottom of the class structure if you perform poorly in school.
16Peer GroupIndividuals who are not necessarily friends but are about the same age and of similar status.Help children and adolescents separate themselves from their families and develop independent sources of identity.
17% of Americans Age 12–17 Who Used Substances in Month Prior to Survey, 1990–97
18The Mass MediaIncludes TV, radio, movies, the Internet, newspapers, magazines, and books.Worldwide, the number of Internet users jumped to 1 billion in 2005 from 40 million in 1995.Over 98% of American households own a TV.Each TV is turned on for 7 hours/day.
20Top 4 Activities of American Women and Men, 18–24, 1993–95
21Hours of TV Viewing /Week by Year of School Completed Hours/day0–111213-1415-1617-200–116.818.127.531.048.72–338.742.846.850.041.74–5184.108.40.2062.08.06+20.419.96.97.01.6
22Polling QuestionWhich media source do you think has the strongest impact on attitudes and behaviors of your generation?AdvertisingTelevisionMusic and music videosThe InternetMagazines
23Initiation Rites and Resocialization Three stages signify the transition from one group to another:Separation from one’s old status and identity (ritual rejection).Degradation, disorientation, and stress (ritual death).Acceptance of the new group culture and status (ritual rebirth).
24The Flexible SelfPeople are free to combine elements of culture from a variety of historical periods and geographical settings.You can change your body:Body building, sex-change, plastic surgery, organ transplants, etc.The internet allows people to create virtual communities and use concealed identities.
26Emergence of Childhood and Adolescence In preindustrial societies, children were thought of as small adults.They went to work when they could contribute to the welfare of their families.Marriage was common by the age of 15 or 16.
27Problems of Childhood and Adolescent Socialization Today Declining adult supervision and guidance.Increasing media influence.Declining extracurricular activities and increasing adult responsibilities.
28Effect of Employment on Grades Among Full-Time College Students Who Work, United States, 1999–2000
30_________________ is the process by which people learn their culture.
31Answer: socialization Socialization is the process by which people learn their culture.
322. Freud wrote about three parts of the self, one which demands immediate gratification, the second which is a repository of cultural standards, and the third which keeps the first two parts in balance. These three parts of the self are known, respectively, as:the ego, the superego, and the idthe me, the I, and the idthe id, the superego, and the egothe superego, the ego, and the id
33Answer: cFreud wrote about three parts of the self, one which demands immediate gratification, the second which is a repository of cultural standards, and the third which keeps the first two parts in balance. These three parts of the self are known, respectively, as: the id, the superego, and the ego.
343. Which of the following do sociologists not regard as agents of socialization? the familyschoolspeer groupsthe generalized othertotal institutions
35Answer: dSociologists do not regard the generalized other as an agent of socialization.
364. A(n) _________________ is an expectation that helps bring about what it predicts.
37Answer: self-fulfilling prophecy A self-fulfilling prophecy is an expectation that helps bring about what it predicts.
385. Which of the following has done much to change the socialization patterns of American youth over the past 40 years or so?declining adult supervision and guidanceincreasing media influencedeclining extracurricular activitiesincreasing adult responsibilitiesall of these choices
39Answer: eDeclining adult supervision and guidance, increasing media influence, declining extracurricular activities and increasing adult responsibilities have done much to change the socialization patterns of American youth over the past 40 years or so.