5Socialization and Self-Esteem How much value one sees in oneself is greatly affected by socialization how you are seen by society.A national study of 9th and 12th graders examined the eating behaviors:57% of the girls and 31% of the boys reported eating disorders.Fear about one’s appearance to others was is associated with this risky behavior.
7Consequences of Socialization Establishes self-concepts.Creates the capacity for role taking.Creates the tendency for people to act in socially acceptable ways.Makes people bearers of culture.
8Agents of Socialization Institutions pass on expectations about appropriate social behavior:FamilyMediaPeersReligionSports
9The Family Families introduce children to the expectations of society. How parents define and treat a child is crucial to the development of the child’s sense of self.Some families emphasize educational achievement; some may be more permissive, whereas others emphasize strict obedience and discipline.
10The MediaThe average young person (age 8–19) spends 6 3/4 hours per day immersed in media in various forms, often using multiple media forms simultaneously.Television is the dominant medium, although half of all youth use a computer daily.Analysts estimate that by age 18, the average child will have witnessed at least 18,000 simulated murders on television.
11Polling QuestionWhich media source do you think has the strongest impact on attitudes and behaviors of your generation?AdvertisingTelevisionMusic and music videosThe InternetMagazines
12Peers For children, peer culture is an important source of identity. Through interaction with peers, children learn concepts of self, gain social skills, and form values and attitudes.Girls’ peer groups tend to be closely knit and egalitarian.Boys’ peer groups tend to be more hierarchical, with evident status distinctions between members.
13ReligionChildren tend to develop the same religious beliefs as their parents.Very often those who disavow religion return to their original faith at some point in their life, especially if they have strong ties to their family of origin and after they form families of their own.Religious socialization also influences beliefs about sexuality, including the likelihood of tolerance for gay and lesbian sexuality.
14Sports Through sports, men and women learn concepts of self. Men learn that being competitive in sports is considered a part of “manhood.”Current research finds that women in sports develop a strong sense of bodily competence, which is typically denied to them by the prevailing cultural images of women’s bodies.
16SchoolsIn school, teachers and other students are the source of expectations that encourage children to think and behave in particular ways.Research finds that teachers respond differently to boys than to girls, with boys receiving more of their attention.The hidden curriculum consists of the informal and often subtle messages about social roles conveyed through classroom interaction and materials.
17Polling QuestionWhich agent of socialization do you think is the most responsible for gender differences in how males and females are socialized?The familyReligionThe peer groupEducationMass media
18Moments in America for Children Every 9 seconds a high school student drops out.Every 20 seconds a child is arrested.Every 37 seconds a child is born to a mother who is not a high school graduate.Every 43 seconds a child is born into poverty.Every minute a child is born to a teen mother.Every 2 minutes a child is born at low birth weight.
19Moments in America for Children Every 4 minutes a child is born to a mother who received late or no prenatal care.Every 4 minutes a child is arrested for drug abuse.Every 8 minutes a child is arrested for a violentcrime.Every 19 minutes a baby dies.
20Moments in America for Children Every 3 hours a child or youth under 20 is killed by a firearm.Every 3 hours a child or youth under 20 is a homicide victim.Every 5 hours a child or youth under 20 commits suicide.Every day a young person under 25 dies from HIV infection.
21Psychoanalytic Theory of Socialization Individual Learning processUnconscious mind shapes behaviorFormation of selfEmerges from tension between id and superegoInfluence of societySocietal expectations are represented by the superego
22Object Relations Theory of Socialization Individual Learning processInfants identify with same-sex parentFormation of selfEmerges through separating oneself from primary caretakerInfluence of societyDivision of labor in the family shapes identity
23Social Learning Theory of Socialization Individual Learning processPeople respond to social stimuli in their environmentFormation of selfCreated through interaction of mental and social worldsInfluence of societyYoung children learn principles that shape the external world
24Functionalist Theory of Socialization Individual Learning processPeople internalize role expectations in societyFormation of selfInternalizing the values of society reinforces social consensusInfluence of societySociety relies on conformity to maintain social equilibrium
25Conflict Theory of Socialization Individual Learning processAspirations that are part of identity are shaped by available opportunitiesFormation of selfGroup consciousness is formed in the context of a system of inequalityInfluence of societySocial control agents exert pressure to conform
26Symbolic Interaction Theory of Socialization Individual Learning processChildren learn by taking the role of significant othersFormation of selfEmerges as the creative self interacts with social expectations of othersInfluence of societyExpectations of others form the context for learning social roles
27Piaget: Social Learning Theory Stages of cognitive development:SensorimotorPreoperationalConcrete operationalFormal operational
28Looking-glass Self How we think we appear to others. How we think others judge us.How these make us feel - proud, embarrassed or something else.
30Mead: Taking the Role of the Other Imitation stage - children imitate behavior of those around them.Play stage - children take on the role of significant others.Game stage - children internalize an abstract understanding of how society sees them.
381. According to Piaget, at what stage do children begin to use language and other symbols? a. play stageb. sensorimotor stagec. concrete operational staged. preoperational stage
39Answer: dAccording to Piaget, children begin to use language and other symbols at the preoperational stage.
402. According to Mead, at what stage do children become capable of taking on a variety of roles at the same time?a. the preoperational stageb. the imitation stagec. the play staged. the game stage
41Answer: dAccording to Mead, children become capable of taking on a variety of roles at the same time at the game stage.
423. Psychoanalytic theory originates in the work of: a. George Herbert Meadb. Sigmund Freudc. Charles Horton Cooleyd. Jean Piaget
43Answer: bPsychoanalytic theory originates in the work of Sigmund Freud.
444. The process of resocialization involves: a. learning the values and beliefs of a new schoolb. relearning existing social rolesc. changing or replacing existing social rolesd. adjusting to new significant others
45Answer: cThe process of resocialization involves changing or replacing existing social roles.
465. Society has no influence on one's identity. a. Trueb. False
47Answer: FalseSociety does influence one's identity.
486. Socialization is a subtle form of social control. a. Trueb. False
49Answer: TrueSocialization is a subtle form of social control.