Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3: Socialization from Infancy to Old Age."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 3: Socialization from Infancy to Old Age
What is socialization? Socialization refers to the lifelong social experience by which people develop their human potential and learn culture.
4 stages of socialization Primary socialization: learning through eating, hygiene, dressing, usually stuff that happens at home also known as formative phase of social interact. Secondary socialization: learning, directing as a group member, learning skills and imbibing knowledge to be accepted as a social member, such as working at church, participating in extra curricular activities beyond the Primary level of socialization. Tertiary socialization is the maturity phase in old age. Anticipatory socialization is to think before any social interact. One plans what one is likely to do in any social interact and foresees the eventuality of the social interact..
What is the relationship between socialization and personality? It is through the constant socialization that we develop our personality (consistent ways of acting, thinking, and feeling) For animals, their behavior is mainly set by biology (nature). However most sociologists believe that we learn to be truly human through socialization (nurture).
What are the four agents of socialization? Family The most important agent of socialization Teaches skills, values and beliefs Teaches gender roles Gives social identity
What are the four agents of socialization? School Socialize people into gender roles Richer schools are able to more effectively teach the “hidden curriculum”
What are the four agents of socialization? Peer group Peer groups share common interests, social position, and age. We may want to move to another peer group, and change our habits. This is called anticipatory socialization.
What are the four agents of socialization? Mass media Deliver impersonal communication to a large audience Because of the large audiences, people are concerned about the messages coming from television
How do we explain socialization? Freud’s Elements of Personality Id – Basic human drives Ego – Conscious effort to balance basic human drives with the demands of society Superego – The internalization of the demands of society Culture and society (in the superego) represses demands. A well adjusted adult can use his ego to balance his own drives and those of society through other mechanisms (sublimation).
How do we explain socialization?
George Herbert Mead’s Theory of the Social Self The Self – part of an individuals personality composed of self- awareness and self-image “I” and “me” – two parts of the self. The “I” is how we act and see things, and the “me” is how we think others will interpret our actions. We have a fully developed self when we can take the role of the other and know our “me”.
George Herbert Mead Argued that “the Social Self” developed out of social interactions with others Social interaction involves seeing ourselves as others see us or taking the role of the other Taking the role of the other involves a constant interplay between the “I” and the “Me”
George Herbert Mead 3 Components of the Social Self: The “I”- the subjective element of the self; involves the direct experiences of the self; develops without language The “Me”- the objective element of the self; involves how we look at others and see ourselves; develops with language The “Mind”- taking the roles of others; the interplay between I and Me
George Herbert Mead Taking the Role of the Other Significant other – when children take the perspective of those who are most important in their lives; performed through the use of language and symbols in imitation, modeling or simple role playing after parents
George Herbert Mead Generalized other – when children take the roles of several others at once; performed through the participation of children in complex games or sports activities; children learn the shared expectations of an entire social group or society as a reference point for evaluating themselves
Simply put (Don’t write) Our biological self.. hair color, stature, fingers and toes, etc. don't depend on our place in society and would be included in the "I." Our role of daughter/son/father/mother in our family DOES reflect an aspect of our social self and is part of our "me."
How are we socialized throughout life? Childhood The idea of childhood is grounded in culture and not biology Childhood has been extended to give young people more time to learn the skills to progress in modern society
How are we socialized throughout life? Adolescence A buffer (middle stage) between childhood and adulthood Adolescence varies by social class. Working class children move straight from high school to work. Middle class children extend adolescence into twenties and thirties The “rebelliousness” of adolescence is due to cultural inconsistency
How are we socialized throughout life? Adulthood Our personalities are largely formed by the time of adulthood Most major accomplishments take place (family, career) Major problems as well…growing older, empty nest, realization of health problems
How are we socialized throughout life? Old Age Begins around mid-sixties The value of old age varies by culture. In traditional and eastern cultures the elderly are highly valued. In western and modern societies the elderly are not as valued.
Can we be resocialized? Total Institutions Total institutions are settings in which people are isolated from the rest of society and controlled by an administrative staff. People are resocialized in total institutions. Their personality and selves are changed.
Can we be resocialized? Total Institutions Steps to resocialization: 1. Break down one’s existing identity. a. All interaction is rule bound, and set by the administrators b. No privacy c. People loose distinctiveness (no unique hair styles or clothes, and serial numbers used) 2. Build a new self through rewards and punishments a. The more the inmate conforms to the rules of the institution, the quicker he can be released
Can we be resocialized? Total Institutions Examples of Total Institutions (in different degrees): Cults Prisons Boot camps Convents Orphanages Boarding schools Any more examples?