2What is socialization?Socialization refers to the lifelong social experience by which people develop their human potential and learn culture.
34 stages of socialization Primary socialization: learning through eating, hygiene, dressing, usually stuff that happens at home also known as formative phase of social interact. Secondary socialization: learning, directing as a group member, learning skills and imbibing knowledge to be accepted as a social member, such as working at church, participating in extra curricular activities beyond the Primary level of socialization. Tertiary socialization is the maturity phase in old age. Anticipatory socialization is to think before any social interact. One plans what one is likely to do in any social interact and foresees the eventuality of the social interact..
4What is the relationship between socialization and personality? It is through the constant socialization that we develop our personality (consistent ways of acting, thinking, and feeling)For animals, their behavior is mainly set by biology (nature). However most sociologists believe that we learn to be truly human through socialization (nurture).
5What are the four agents of socialization? FamilyThe most important agent of socializationTeaches skills, values and beliefsTeaches gender rolesGives social identity
6What are the four agents of socialization? SchoolSocialize people into gender rolesRicher schools are able to more effectively teach the “hidden curriculum”
7What are the four agents of socialization? Peer groupPeer groups share common interests, social position, and age.We may want to move to another peer group, and change our habits. This is called anticipatory socialization.
8What are the four agents of socialization? Mass mediaDeliver impersonal communication to a large audienceBecause of the large audiences, people are concerned about the messages coming from television
9How do we explain socialization? Freud’s Elements of PersonalityId – Basic human drivesEgo – Conscious effort to balance basic human drives with the demands of societySuperego – The internalization of the demands of societyCulture and society (in the superego) represses demands. A well adjusted adult can use his ego to balance his own drives and those of society through other mechanisms (sublimation).
11How do we explain socialization? George Herbert Mead’s Theory of the Social Self The Self – part of an individuals personality composed of self- awareness and self-image “I” and “me” – two parts of the self. The “I” is how we act and see things, and the “me” is how we think others will interpret our actions. We have a fully developed self when we can take the role of the other and know our “me”.
12George Herbert MeadArgued that “the Social Self” developed outof social interactions with othersSocial interaction involves seeing ourselvesas others see us or taking the role of theotherTaking the role of the other involves aconstant interplay between the “I” and the“Me”
13George Herbert Mead3 Components of the Social Self:The “I”- the subjective element of the self;involves the direct experiences of the self;develops without languageThe “Me”- the objective element of the self;involves how we look at others and see ourselves;develops with languageThe “Mind”- taking the roles of others; theinterplay between I and Me
14George Herbert MeadTaking the Role of the OtherSignificant other – when children take theperspective of those who are most importantin their lives; performed through the use oflanguage and symbols in imitation,modeling or simple role playing afterparents
15George Herbert MeadGeneralized other – when children take theroles of several others at once; performedthrough the participation of children incomplex games or sports activities; childrenlearn the shared expectations of an entiresocial group or society as a reference pointfor evaluating themselves
16Simply put (Don’t write) Our biological self.. hair color, stature, fingers and toes, etc. don't depend on our place in society and would be included in the "I." Our role of daughter/son/father/mother in our family DOES reflect an aspect of our social self and is part of our "me."
17How are we socialized throughout life? ChildhoodThe idea of childhood is grounded in culture and not biologyChildhood has been extended to give young people more time to learn the skills to progress in modern society
18How are we socialized throughout life? AdolescenceA buffer (middle stage) between childhood and adulthoodAdolescence varies by social class. Working class children move straight from high school to work. Middle class children extend adolescence into twenties and thirtiesThe “rebelliousness” of adolescence is due to cultural inconsistency
19How are we socialized throughout life? AdulthoodOur personalities are largely formed by the time of adulthoodMost major accomplishments take place (family, career)Major problems as well…growing older, empty nest, realization of health problems
20How are we socialized throughout life? Old AgeBegins around mid-sixtiesThe value of old age varies by culture. In traditional and eastern cultures the elderly are highly valued.In western and modern societies the elderly are not as valued.
21Can we be resocialized? Total Institutions Total institutions are settings in which people are isolated from the rest of society and controlled by an administrative staff. People are resocialized in total institutions. Their personality and selves are changed.
22Can we be resocialized? Total Institutions Steps to resocialization:Break down one’s existing identity.All interaction is rule bound, and set by the administratorsNo privacyPeople loose distinctiveness (no unique hair styles or clothes, and serial numbers used)Build a new self through rewards and punishmentsThe more the inmate conforms to the rules of the institution, the quicker he can be released
23Can we be resocialized? Total Institutions Examples of Total Institutions (in different degrees):CultsPrisonsBoot campsConventsOrphanagesBoarding schoolsAny more examples?