Presentation on theme: "Emergence of the Americas in Global Affairs"— Presentation transcript:
1Emergence of the Americas in Global Affairs 1880 - 1929
2Civil War to turn of the Century From Colony to Superpower Gilded Age1882 must control an isthmus /canalMany domestic problems- time of rapid change (railroad, steam, telegraph,)Low concern for external threatsNon-entanglement became holy writMore than ever drawn to far off placesAdventure, opportunity, and commerceRush for empire by all countries- ImperialismImmigration with high birth rate pushes us to second most populated country by 1900Killed off most Native AmericansU.S. number one economic growth - growing cities and marketsSent agriculture and industrial products across the globe
3Civil War to turn of the Century Roots of American Empire found in Post-Civil War periodClaims to “non-interference being strictly observed”Missionaries go to far off nations to Christianize “backwards” people
4Themes and Questions to think about ImmigrationHow did immigrants of ethnic groups change and push United States for foreign policyEconomy“Gilded Age politicians and businessmen thus set out to protect existing foreign markets and find new ones““Certain of the superiority of their institutions and conscious of their rising power, they increasingly claimed that their rightful place was at the head of the American nations. They believed they could assist their southern neighbors to be more stable and orderly. For reasons of both economics and security, they sought to roll back European influence and increase their own.” (Herring 290)Pre- Spanish American War“What was once called the Spanish American War was the pivotal event of a pivotal decade, bringing the “large policy” to fruition and marking the United States as a world power” (Herring 309)Do you agree “no war in history has accomplished so much in so short time with so little loss?”What were the two sides of the argument over the Philippines?Was the war something done “for” Cubans or done “to” Cubans?How has the Philippian war bring “disillusionment” to the “nation’s imperial mission?”Why was “isolation…no longer possible or desirable?”Good IntentionsHow did diplomatic expectations and U.S. infrastructure change with Theodore Roosevelt pushing the presidency to an “imperial state”?In what ways did immigrants play a role in U.S. foreign policy?How did dollar diplomacy work itself out in Latin America?
5Presidents from 1880 to 1929 Arthur 1881 – 1885 Cleveland 1885 – 1889 Harrison 1889 – 1893Cleveland 1893 – 1897McKinley 1897 – 1901Teddy Roosevelt 1901 – 1909Taft 1909 – 1913Woodrow Wilson
6President Arthur 1881 – 1885Crucial first steps in building a modern navy steel gunboatsCurbed corruption and incompetency within the NavyEven in 1889, naval coaling stations were limited to Honolulu, Samoa, and Pichilingue in Lower CaliforniaSecretary of State, James G. BlaineAdvocating the construction of a canal across the Isthmus of PanamaNegotiated a treaty with Nicaragua that ceded a stretch of land to the United States for construction of the waterwayCongress refused to ratify this treatyViolated an existing treaty with Great BritainEach nation pledged not to obtain exclusive control over any canal built through the Isthmus of Panama
7President Cleveland 1885 – 1889Cleveland shunned foreign entanglements and imperial ambitionsRevolutions in both Hawaii and Cuba: chose not to acknowledge eitherDid send ships to Venezuela to compel the British to accept arbitration - his most controversial foreign policy decisionPrincipal agenda was to oppose territorial expansion and entangling alliancesSamoa was another matter altogether. Because the United States had treaty rights to establish a naval base on the island, Cleveland reacted strongly when Germany tried to install a puppet monarchHawaii: Cleveland tried to pressure revolutionary government to hand power back to Queen Liliuokalani Did send troops to Panama during his PresidencyIn Cuba, Cleveland wanted to remain neutral, refusing to support the insurrection against Spanish rule and urging instead that Spain adopt reforms that would lead to gradual independenceThe matter remained unresolved at the end of his second term
8President Harrison1889 – 1893International affairs engaged Harrison's administration more than any president since Lincoln. The first Pan-American conference was held in 1889Established Samoa as an American protectorate with Germany and England as partners, and tried to annex Hawaii following a revolution (the Senate rejected the annexation)Harrison negotiated reciprocal trade agreements that set the pattern for American trade policy in the years to come.He convened the first modern Pan-American Conference in October 1889 and also boldly negotiated the establishment of a protectorate over the Samoan Islands with Germany and Great BritainHarrison appointed the nation's leading black leader, Frederick Douglass, minister to Haiti.Harrison supported the expansion of the Navy, begun by President Chester Arthur, into a world-class fleet of seven armored shipsHe failed to secure a coaling station in HaitiCould not convince Congress to guarantee private company trying to build a canal in Nicaragua, nor did he achieve the annexation of HawaiiLegacy: launched the nation on the road to empire, inspired Theodore Roosevelt's "Big Stick" diplomacy, vigorous trade agenda, negotiating substantial reciprocal trade agreements with key American trading markets -- novel actions that set the pattern for American trade policy in the twentieth century
9President McKinley1897 – 1901McKinley's Open Door policy to China mandating that trade with the Chinese be open to all western nations equallyThe new century would be the first in U.S. history in which no frontier existed for them to conquerNew frontiers were integral to national greatnessNo modern nation could be a great nation without a powerful navy, a superior merchant fleet, and overseas coloniesFears of overseas expansion: too costly, non-white peoples into the American nation, deviate from the traditional isolationist stance of the nation's foreign policy, an economic threatChina emerged as a major foreign policy concern :, McKinley authorized Secretary of State John Hay to issue an "Open Door" note on ChinaAll commercial nations on an equal footing in China Declared U.S. support for a non-colonized and independent China One of the most important policy statements ever issued by the U.S. State DepartmentIn June 1900, a group of Chinese nationalists who objected to foreign intrusions in their country massacred numerous western missionaries and Chinese converts to Christianity Boxer RisingAlso laid siege to the foreign community of diplomats in PekingWithout seeking congressional approval sent gunboats to assist a combined expeditionary forceChina was forced to pay an indemnity in excess of $300 million, $25 million of which went to the United States
10President Roosevelt1901 – 1909America should be strong and ready to defend its interests around the worldLatin America consumed a fair amount of Roosevelt's time and energy during his first term as President. Venezuela became a focus of his attention in 1902 when Germany and Britain sent ships to blockade that country's coastline.Roosevelt felt aggrieved by their actions and demanded that they agree to arbitration to resolve the disputeDominican Republic: European investors appealed to their governments to collect money from a debt-ridden nation Latin American nationDominican government appealed to the United States, Roosevelt ordered an American collector to assume control of the customs houses and collect duties to avoid possible European military actionRoosevelt formulated what became known as the Roosevelt Corollary - stated that the United States would not accept European intervention in the Americas: United States would intervene in any Latin American country that manifested serious economic problems and would serve as the "policeman" of the Western Hemisphere, a policy which eventually created much resentment in Latin America
11President Taft 1909 – 1913Asserts U.S. influence in foreign lands through investment and tradeDid not shy away from displaying American military might to protect U.S. business interestsWhen revolution threatened in Honduras and Nicaragua, Taft dispatched troops to safeguard U.S. citizens and propertyMore committed to the expansion of U.S. foreign trade than was Roosevelt. Encourages U.S. investments in the Americas, and the Far EastU.S. military was a tool of economic diplomacy. He invited U.S. banks to rescue debt-ridden Honduras with loans and grants, and he sent 2,700 U.S. marines to stabilize Nicaragua's conservative, pro-U.S. regime when rebels threatened to overthrow its governmentSeeking commercial advantages in Central America aggravated the existing ill will that had been generated by Roosevelt's military interventions in Panama and Santa Domingo
12President WilsonWoodrow Wilson's foreign policy was based on an altruistic yearning to impart the benefits of constitutional democracy on other nations. To his detractors, his approach was seen as condescending and naïveWanted to “strike a new note in international affairs”Wanted to condemn imperialism and endorse democracy and peaceAccording to this policy, the US would only lend a helping hand to those Latin American nations which had a democratic government and supported the interests of the US. The idea behind this was to resort to economic pressure to influence and control the other nations. The US being a major player in the world economy, it was difficult for the other nations to maintain a stable economy of their won without the SU support. Wilson banked on this very fact and tried to force these nations into submission with his moral diplomacyWilson set out to raise the moral tone of American foreign policy by denouncing dollar diplomacyTo seek special economic concessions in Latin America was "unfair" and "degrading." The United States would deal with Latin American nations "upon terms of equality and honor."Woodrow Wilson and his secretary of state, William Jennings Bryan, came into office with little experience in foreign relations but with a determination to base their policy on moral principles rather than the selfish materialism that they believed had animated their predecessors' programsHe also permitted Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan to negotiate conciliation treaties with 21 nations. The distinctive feature of these agreements was the provision for a "cooling-of' period of one year, during which signatories agreed, in the event of a dispute, not to engage in hostilities.
13Wilson Cont…MexicoRefused to recognize General Huerta who had seized power illegally"I will not recognize a government of butchers," he said. This was unconventional, since nations do not ordinarily consider the means by which a foreign regime has come to power before deciding to establish diplomatic relations.Wilson refused to recognize General Victoriano Huerta, Wilson demanded that Huerta hold free electionsHis stance encouraged anti-Huerta forces in northern Mexico led by Venustiano CarranzaGerman merchantman laden with munitions was expected at Veracruz, Wilson ordered the city occupied to prevent the weapons from reaching the HuertistasMexican officials arrested a few American sailors, which pushed Wilson to order the U.S. Navy to occupy the port city of VeracruzThis weakened Huerta's control, and he abandoned power to Carranza, whom Wilson immediately recognized as the de facto president of MexicoPancho Villa moved to provoke a war between the Carranza government and the United States by stopping a train in northern Mexico and killed 16 American passengers in cold blood. Then he crossed into New Mexico and burned the town of Columbus, killing 19Wilson, without securing permission from Carranza, sent an expedition of 7,000 U.S. soldiers commanded by General John "Black Jack" Pershing into Mexico in pursuit of VillaAlarmed by the danger of war, Wilson reaffirmed his commitment to Mexican self-determination and agreed to discuss methods of securing the border area with the Mexican governmentEarly in 1917 Wilson withdrew all U.S. forces from MexicoOther nationsIn 1916, Wilson practiced an old-fashioned form of imperialism by buying the Virgin Islands from their colonial master, Denmark, for $25 millionCongress promised the residents of the Philippine Islands independencePuerto Rico achieved territorial status, and its residents became U.S. citizensResponded to revolution in Haiti by sending in American marines to restore order, and he did the same in the Dominican Republic in 1916Because of the strategic importance of the Panama Canal, he was unwilling to tolerate "unrest" anywhere in the Caribbean
14Gunboat DiplomacyIn international politics, gunboat diplomacy -the pursuit of foreign policy objectives with the aid of military power.Definitive Force: the use of gunboat diplomacy to create or remove a fait accompli . Purposeful Force: application of naval force to change the policy or character of the target government or groupCatalytic Force: a mechanism designed to buy a breathing space or present policy makers with an increased range of optionsExpressive Force: use of navies to send a political messageNotable examples:Panama separation from ColombiaGreat White Fleet (1907
15U.S. Expansion 19th century Not much interest in foreign affairs (very isolationist) Limited desire to compete with EuropeSocial Darwinism will encourage expansion-white Americans are indeed the fittest(?)Rudyard Kipling-take up the White Man’s Burden - duty to civilize and Christianize the “backward” peoples of the worldAlfred Thayer Mayan-expand the merchant fleet and the navy-create new markets and make a profitThose against expansion-U.S. a vast country-plenty to do here--- people opposed imperialism: empire building, expanding the nations authority
16Four themes of diplomacy The most obvious theme is the land and commercial expansion that drove the nation outward between 1750 and the 1940’s.Second theme is the steady centralization of power at home, especially in the executive branch of government after Foreign policies that Americans have desired since the nineteenth century are most effective carried out by a strong presidency.Third, “isolationism”, maintaining a maximum amount of freedom of actionFourth, importance of the transitional 1850 to 1914 era, a time when Americans attitudes underwent change and ushered in modern U.S. foreign policy
17Evolution of Diplomacy Monroe Doctrine of 1823Faced with threats of foreign intervention from several European powers in the western hemisphere Monroe came up with the following policyThe W. hemisphere was closed to further European colonizationU.S. would not interfere with the existing conflicts of EuropeansThe U.S. would not interfere in the internal affairs of any EuropeansAny attempt by the European powers to intervene in the W. hemisphere would be regarded as “dangerous to our peace and safety.”
18Turning Point: The McKinley Years (1896-1900) Never had a newly independent nation risen so far so fast as did the United States betweenAfter the triumph over Spain in 1898 brought the U.S. new holdings in the Caribbean and the western PacificMcKinley won the 1896 election and intended to control foreign policy himselfIn so doing, became the first modern chief executive, expanding the Constitution’s commander in chief powers, setting the precedent for the “imperial presidency” of the 1960’s and 1970’sBuilt a political coalition so powerful that only one Democratic presidential nominee would be elected between 1896 to 1932.
19Yellow Journalism fans the flames of war Technological breakthroughs in making paper and setting type had made mass distribution of papers easyWilliam Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer sought readers through sensational front page stories, and nothing was more sensational than the events in Cuba, unless of course it was a war with SpainMcKinley was not moved by the press and feared war would drag the U.S. back into the economic crises it was finally emerging from in 1897
20McKinley, moreover, opposed war because it could lead to demands for annexing Cuba, which would raise constitutional problemsCan the constitution safely stretch across water to take in new states without tearing apart?Bringing Cuba in to the Union would also incorporate a multiracial society at a time when whites were already having problems dealing with black Americans and millions of newly arrived immigrantsMcKinley pressed Spain to grant reforms and Madrid began to do so, but McKinley criticized it as too little too late
21A War EmergesSpain lost control, in late 1897, riots erupted in HavanaMcKinley moved a warship, the Maine, into Havana Harbor to protect U.S. citizens and propertySix days later, on February 15, an explosion shook the Maine, settling into the muck of the Harbor, taking more than 250 U.S. sailors with itYellow journalist, citizens, and congressmen would scream for war
22The Second CrisesRebels in the Philippines had begun war against Spanish ruleThe islands could become a key military base from which to protect U.S. interests in AsiaMcKinley and Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt closely watched these islandsRoosevelt sent his Pacific fleet to attack the islands in case of war with SpainGermany and Japan were grabbing at Asian territory which forced the Presidents hand to begin the quest for Asian Markets
23After the Maine, he moved rapidly to prepare the country for war McKinley carefully prepared his policy to deal with the Cuban and Asian crises at once.After the Maine, he moved rapidly to prepare the country for warBetween March 20 and 28, the President sent a series of demands to SpainPay reparations for the Maine, declare a truce, and negotiate for Cuban independence through U.S. meditationSpain did all of them, but Cuban independence, no Madrid government could do this and remain in powerApril 11, sent a message to Congress asking for war on grounds that the struggle in Cuba threatened lives, U.S. property, and tranquility in the U.S.
24The President did not want war He did want results that only war could bringProtecting property in CubaStopping the revolution before it turned towards U.S.Restore confidence in U.S. Business community, giving himself a free hand to deal with the Philippines crisisFor these reasons, McKinley took the country into war in April 1898
25“A Splendid Little War…” Congress included in its war resolution the Teller Amendment which declared that the U.S. was not entering into war to conquer territory.McKinley was not interested in annexing Cuba, but did want HawaiiVital bases for U.S. ships heading toward the Philippines, and when Japan sent warships to the Hawaiian islands he ordered U.S. ships to prepare for actionCould not get senate vote to annex HawaiiDewey in the Philippines sent word that he had just taken the Philippines, two days later McKinley got the senate and house to annex HawaiiThe islands then fit within a bigger plan developing in foreign policyBy early August, Hawaii was a territory, Americans had won their easiest contest yet and had become a power in the western Pacific
26Roosevelt emerged as a national hero This led the U.S. to believe that Cuba could be taken by sea and built the navy for action, not the armyThe main U.S fleet got ready to fight the Spanish fleet sailing across the Atlantic to CubaAn important ship, the Oregon, arrived after a 68 day voyage around Cape HornMade Americans understand the need for a canal across Central AmericaU.S. fleet quickly cut off four vessels in Santiago Harbor, trying to flee 12 U.S. vessels destroyed the entire Spanish fleet at the cost of 1 American lifeGave war a good name, easy and cost freeRoosevelt emerged as a national hero
27Back to the Philippines… McKinley decided to annex the Philippines IslandsFilipinos could not run their own countryRevolutionaries were divided and one radical faction threatened propertyCivil War would allow our commercial rivals in the Orient to seize the islands for themselvesProtect the naval base at ManilaSent U.S. troops before Dewey had wonOn the evening before the vote for annexation Filipinos attacked U.S. soldiersThe revolt against U.S. control had begunThey had originally welcomed the U.S. that defeated Spain, then turned to hostility when they found out U.S. intended to stayWar erupted and lasted for another 3 years
28The United States, Cuba, and the Platt Amendment, 1901 The Platt Amendment, an amendment to a U.S. army appropriations bill, established the terms under which the United States would end its military occupation of Cuba (which had begun in 1898 during the Spanish-American War) and “leave the government and control of the island of Cuba to its people.”The Platt Amendment’s conditions:Prohibited the Cuban Government from entering into any international treaty that would compromise Cuban independence or allow foreign powers to use the island for military purposes.The United States also reserved the right to intervene in Cuban affairs in order to defend Cuban independenceOther conditions of the Amendment demanded that the Cuban Government agree to sell or lease territory for coaling and naval stations to the United States. (This clause ultimately led to the perpetual lease by the United States of Guantánamo Bay.)Finally, the amendment required the Cuban Government to conclude a treaty with the United States that would make the Platt amendment legally binding, and the United States pressured the Cubans to incorporate the terms of the Platt Amendment in the Cuban constitution.
29Theodore Roosevelt and Twentieth Century U.S. Foreign Policy TR personally exemplified central themes of post-1890 foreign policyWillingness to use force to obtain orderAn emphasis on a special U.S. responsibility to guarantee stability in Latin AmericaBelief that Anglo Saxon (a person of European origin fitting a certain socio-economic and/or ethnic profile.) values and successes gave Americans a right to conduct such policyAmericans wanted no more land, they wanted economic markets abroadBelieved that great leadership could use this economic power to prevent disorder and revolutionAmerican goods could create happier, more stable societies in the Caribbean and C. AmericaThis became known as $dollar diplomacy$
30Thus was born the 20th century “imperial Presidency” TR had inherited a position whose powers had already multiplied during the post-1860 eraBelieved it was his duty to do anything that the needs of the Nation demanded unless such action was forbidden by the Constitution of the lawsThe more Americans supported a vigorous foreign policy, the more they were going to get a vigorous presidentA young Woodrow Wilson said the “office will be as big and as influential as the man who occupies it.”TR believed that only the President could conduct foreign policy b/c congress is too large and unwieldyHe even used his power as commander in chief to dispatch troops as he saw fit in Latin AmericaThus was born the 20th century “imperial Presidency”Roosevelt colorfully demonstrated that an aggressive foreign policy created a strong President and vice versa
31TR knew what he wanted to do with his new powers: U. S TR knew what he wanted to do with his new powers: U.S. controlled isthmus canal in Central AmericaFirst he had to solve some other foreign issues:A boundary dispute between Alaska and CanadaAgree to have 6 impartial jurists arbitrate the disputeHe appointed 3 non impartial juristsCanada appointed 2And England 1, who promptly voted for the Americans and handed Roosevelt the landFor not the 1st or the last time, Canadian interest were sacrificed for the sake of U.S.-British friendshipSigned the Hay-Pauncefote TreatyAgreement nullified the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of 1850 and gave the United States the right to create and control a canal across Central America
32Columbia legislature rejected it and demanded more money A French company already was building in Panama (a province of Columbia), we offered $10 million plus $250,000 annually for the six mile zoneColumbia legislature rejected it and demanded more moneyTR spread the word he would not be displeased to see Panama revolt from ColumbiaNeeding little encouragement and with help from Washington Panamanians revolted in November 1903.U.S. warships prevented Columbia troops from landing and two days later Roosevelt recognized the new nationSigned a treaty giving Panama $10 million plus $250,000 a year for a ten mile strip that cut the country in halfU.S. also fully guaranteed Panama’s independenceTR was determined to build a canal, most Americans overwhelmingly approved his actions
33Roosevelt CorollaryTR understood the importance of and how it needed to be enforced, Monroe DoctrineDanger to the doctrine came not from European powers anymore, but frequent revolutions in the smaller Caribbean and Central American nationsIn ‘02-’03 Germans, French, and British used force to collect debts from VenezuelaTR could not tolerate major European intervention In the region, but if he opposed it, the Europeans would demand that he make the Latin Americans behave properlyFrom this he outlined his corollary to the doctrine
34President Theodore Roosevelt's assertive approach to Latin America and the Caribbean has often been characterized as the "Big Stick," and his policy came to be known as the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine.Although the Monroe Doctrine of 1823 was essentially passive (it asked that Europeans not increase their influence or recognize any part of the Western Hemisphere), by the 20th century a more confident United States was willing to take on the role of regional policeman.In the early 1900s Roosevelt grew concerned that a crisis between Venezuela and its creditors could spark an invasion of that nation by European powers.The Roosevelt Corollary of December 1904 stated that the United States would intervene as a last resort to ensure that other nations in the Western Hemisphere fulfilled their obligations to international creditors, and did not violate the rights of the United States or invite "foreign aggression to the detriment of the entire body of American nations."As the corollary worked out in practice, the United States increasingly used military force to restore internal stability to nations in the region. Roosevelt declared that the United States might "exercise international police power in 'flagrant cases of such wrongdoing or impotence.'"Over the long term the corollary had little to do with relations between the Western Hemisphere and Europe, but it did serve as justification for U.S. intervention in Cuba, Nicaragua, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic.
35The corollary opened a new era in hemispheric relations Hawaii, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Cuba, and Panama had all been brought within the American orbit within six yearsRoosevelt’s corollary anticipated U.S. policy toward Latin America for the rest of the twentieth century.Between 1898 and 1920, U.S. troops entered Latin America countries no fewer than 20 timesThe corollary opened a new era in hemispheric relationsIn 1911, the Monroe Doctrine was expanded even more with the Lodge CorollaryDeclared U.S. opposition to the sale of any strategic area to a non-hemispheric company that might be an agent for a foreign governmentThe Monroe Doctrine resembled U.S. industry and Presidential powers: it grew larger all the time
36Taft and Dollar Diplomacy Believed in order in Latin America and believed enough money (dollar diplomacy) could do thisThought more constructive foreign affairs could be achieved by using the nations rapidly growing capital resources and downplaying Roosevelt's emphasis on military forceDollar diplomacy could create orderly societies by helping develop the unindustrialized nations and happily make a nice profit for American investors
37Dollar Diplomacy,From 1909 to 1913, President William Howard Taft followed a foreign policy characterized as "dollar diplomacy." Taft shared the view that the goal of diplomacy was to create stability and order abroad that would best promote American commercial interests. The goal of diplomacy is to improve financial opportunities, but also to use private capital to further U.S. interests overseas."Dollar diplomacy" was evident in extensive U.S. interventions in the Caribbean and Central America, especially in measures undertaken to safeguard American financial interests in the region.In spite of successes, "dollar diplomacy" failed to counteract economic instability and the tide of revolution in places like Mexico, the Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, and China.
38Dollar Diplomacy in Latin America U.S. had reached a point where it both needed Latin American markets and possessed the excess capital to develop in the hemisphereThe south had the raw materials and the north the manufacturersRailroad builder from Brooklyn built a major rail system in Costa Rica and then developed banana plantations so that the trains would have cargoThus began the United Fruit Company, or “the octopus”By WWI they owned the banana market, the rail system, shipping, banking, and governments in Costa Rica and HondurasU.S. bankers were acquiring Nicaraguan banks and railroads in return for loans that kept the government afloat
39Dollar Diplomacy in Canada Taft and Wilfred Laurier signed a U.S.-Canadian tariff agreementTaft’s view: Deal could integrate Canada into a vast hemispheric industrial complex controlled by the United StatesAimed at changing trade to north and south rather than between Canada and BritainCareless U.S. politicians started talking about the annexation of Canada through thisInfuriated and frightened CanadianConservatives killed the agreement
40The Wonderful World of Woodrow Wilson “Wilsonian” became a term to describe later policies that emphasized internationalism and moralism and that were dedicated to extending democracyLooked back upon as the chief executive who had the largest vision of the nation’s future and who had first confronted challenges that continued to plague themWilson became the greatest militaryinterventionist in U.S. history
41Wilson and MexicoFrancisco Madero overthrew the 34 year old dictatorship of Porfirio DiazU.S. interests were not pleased; under Diaz U.S. investments were at $2billion, owned 43% of property, 10% more than Mexicans themselves ownedA number of armed groups tried to grab power and captured Madero, and Victoriano Huerta took controlMany countries recognized Huerta’s government, but Wilson refused, objecting to his use of force to gain powerPresident began supporting Huerta’s enemies especially Venustiano CarranzaTo undermine Wilson, Huerta held a free election supported by England, which he handily won
42Wilson went to Congress for military force April of 1914 Huerta arrested 7 U.S. sailors on shore leave for wondering into a forbidden areaWilson went to Congress for military forceWhile congress stalled, Wilson learned that a German ship was going to unload arms for HuertaWilson ordered ships to occupy the port and firing broke out killing 19 Americans and 300 MexicansHuerta was removed and Carranza assumed powerCarranza, refused to work with Wilson, soWilson then aided anti-Carranza forces like Pancho VillaCarranza announced Mexico’s claim to all of its subsoil mineral rights, which threatened U.S. oil companies
43Because of this, Carranza destroying Villa’s forces, and WWI, Wilson reluctantly recognized Carranza’s government in late 1915Villa responded by terrorizing AZ and NM, killing 17 Americans, and 18 in Mexico itselfCarranza reluctantly allowed U.S. troops totrack down the killers6000 men led by John J. Pershing never captured Villa but did clash with Carranza’s troopsBecause of the U.S. entrance into WWI Wilson began to come to terms with Carranza
44Wilson, C. America, & the Caribbean Wilson declared he wanted “orderly processes” in Latin America as well as stability in the marketsAlready had troops in Nicaragua because of U.S. investments under Taft; owned 51% of banks and railwaysU.S. now loaned a bankrupt government another million for the rest of the banks and railwaysNext ordered Marines to Haiti because of internal rebellion and sticking to the Monroe DoctrineTreaty was signed giving U.S. control over the country’s foreign affairs, financial affairs, and the right to intervene when U.S. thought it was necessaryMarines stayed for another 19 yearsDisorder in Dominican Republic led to U.S. sponsored elections, but would not allow U.S. to oversee financesWilson ordered in Marines, U.S. investors took over large sugar and real-estate holdings
45United States in WWIWilson’s goal was to remain “neutral in fact as well as in name”Germans were exercising submarine warfareMay 7, 1915 sunk the British Lusitania and killed 128 AmericansU.S. anti-German opinion grew hot; marked a turning pointWilson had to decide if banks should grant credits and loans to both sidesWilson quietly allowed loans to be floated, “our foreign commerce is just as essential to our prosperity as our domestic commerce”Allies would borrow 2.5 bill in the next two yearsThis decision turned the U.S. from the world’s largest debtor to the worlds biggest creditor, making it the worlds economic superpower of the twentieth century
46War aims and stakes for victory were rising 1915 Wilson started his “preparedness campaign”Train males for possible combatShowed countries he meant business and appease growing anti-German sentimentWould have a strong base to mediate an end to the conflictMilitary leverage against both sides at the end of the warMarch of 1916 French liner the Sussex was sunk injuring several Americans drawing U.S. closer to warRealized he would have to join the war in order to attend the peace conference to push his long range idealsOpen market places, competition, and minimum of government involvement, and a league of nations
47January of 1917 Germany launched an all out sub warfare Aimed to release government restraints so that U.S. banks could rapidly set up overseas operationsWebb-Pomerene Act: freed corporations from antitrust laws, thus allowing them to combine legally to conquer foreign marketsEdge Act: removed government restraints so that U.S. banks could rapidly set up overseas operationsSponsored bill to enlarge navyJanuary of 1917 Germany launched an all out sub warfareMarch 1st Britain intercepted the Zimmerman telegram to Mexico from Germany, asking them to ally for U.S. property back after the warMarch 18th three U.S. ships were torpedoed to the bottom of the AtlanticApril 6th war resolution passed in congress
48Wilson had learned that in such a conflict, the United States could no longer be both neutral and prosperous. Nor could it be neutral and hope to have a decisive voice in constructing the postwar peace“If the war is too strong for you to prevent, how is it going to be weak enough for you to control and mold to your liberal purposes?”Anti war voice of Randolph BourneAmerica could no longer be neutral and have the freedom to sell anywhere it pleased
49Principles Wilson wanted after the war:(part of his 14 points) Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at, after which there shall be no private international understandings of any kind but diplomacy shall proceed always frankly and in the public view.No secret treatiesAbsolute freedom of navigation upon the seas, alike in peace and in war.The removal, so far as possible, of all economic barriers and the establishment of equality of trade conditions among all the nationsWorldwide open door for trade…National armaments will be reduced to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety.…impartial adjustment of all colonial claims, …interests of the populations concerned must have equal weight with the equitable claims of the government whose title is to be determined.The evacuation of all Russian territory, a sincere welcome into the society of free nations under institutions of her own choosing; and, more than a welcome, assistance also of every kind that she may need and may herself desire. The treatment accorded Russia by her sister nations in the months to come will be the acid test of their good will.A general associations of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike.
50Paris Peace talks started January of 1919 mainly by the big three, Wilson,Lloyd George, and Georges ClemenceauWilson believed that the treaty may have issues, but a properly created league of nations could correct these over timeDrew up 26 articles for his league of nationsU.S. congress accepted the treaty but did not accept the LeagueFeared being drawn in to defend the interests of such colonial powers as Britain and FranceFeared the league would mean an increase in contacts with the poison infected areas of the world1921 U.S. signed separate peace treaties with Germany and Austria
51Warren G. Harding Harding was voted in to office in 1921 Harding was bequeathed theproblems of containing the SovietUnion and a world threatened with revolution“perfect nonsense” to assume that U.S. membership in the league could have prevented the horrors of the 1930’s
52Canada and the “Great War” With the eruption of warPatriotic fever within English CanadaFlocked to recruiting stations, got involved with war effort at home, determined to contribute to British Empire’s battle in EuropeFrench Canada felt removed from Britain’s plightLittle attachment to the imperial mother countryStill enraged that Ontario banned French as a language of instruction in its schools (bill 17)400,000 volunteered for service, fewer than 1 in 20 were French and 70% were recent immigrants from England
53Canada and the “Great War” Prime Minister Robert BordenMade two promises that he would struggle upholdingHe promised Britain that Canada would uphold a military force overseas of 500,000 menHe also promised his people back home that there would be no obligatory military service known as conscriptionDead and wounded numbers mounted and jobs became plentiful causing voluntary enlistment to dropThis forced Borden to introduce three Acts
54Canada and the “Great War” With an election coming up soon and knowing that possible conscription would lose him votes he passed 2 of the 3 acts:Military Voters Act: extended vote to overseas soldiers, also women nursesWartime Elections Act: women who had close male relatives serving overseas were granted the right to voteWith victory in the 1917 election, Borden passed the Military Service Act in January of 1918.It caused 400,000 men to be liable for military serviceIn the French city of Quebec there was outrage, protests, and marches
55Canada and the “Great War” Only about 125,000 men were ever conscripted and only 25,000 of them were ever sent to the frontFortunately for Borden the war ended within a few monthsThis issue left the people distrustful and divided over their governmentConservatives were virtually shut out of Quebec and the west for the next 50 yearsConsequently, the military benefits of conscription were slight, while the political consequences were great
56Treaty of Versailles 1919The Treaty of Versailles was one of the peace treaties at the end of WWI, ending the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on June 28, 1919, exactly five years after the start of the war.Although the armistice signed on November 11, 1918 ended the actual fighting, it took six months of negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference to conclude the peace treaty.
57Versailles TreatyThe main terms of the Versailles Treaty were: (1) the surrender of all German colonies as League of Nations mandates; (2) the return of Alsace-Lorraine to France; (7) occupation and special status for the Saar under French control; (8) demilitarization and a fifteen-year occupation of the Rhineland; (9) German reparations of £6,600 million; (10) a ban on the union of Germany and Austria; (11) an acceptance of Germany's guilt in causing the war; (11) provision for the trial of the former Kaiser and other war leaders; (12) limitation of Germany's army to 100,000 men with no conscription, no tanks, no heavy artillery, no poison-gas supplies, no aircraft and no airships; (13) the limitation of the German Navy to vessels under 100,000 tons, with no submarines; Germany signed the Versailles Treaty under protest. The USA Congress refused to ratify the treaty. Many people in France and Britain were angry that there was no trial of the Kaiser or the other war leaders.
58Latin America and World War I Three major factors due to WWI in Latin America:Growth of U.S. economic dominance in the region and the changing character of world economyThe beginnings of mass politicsThe spread of nationalismThe consequence of this event was that all American nations were thrown into a condition of acute financial and commercial disturbanceHarsh reminder of L.A. of their vulnerable position within this European-dominated frameworkTrade with the U.S. which was growing before the war, received a tremendous boost during the conflictAlso an increased flow of capital from the U.S. this being particularly important in Chile and Peru, where the mining sectors came to be almost completely controlled by large US corporations
59The greater economic role of the U. S The greater economic role of the U.S. in South America was one aspect of her rise to the leading position within the international economy in the postwar periodThe impact of the war made nationalism very much more prominent and broadened its appealEconomic and cultural nationalism that developed during the war and in the 1920s represented the growing disenchantment with the European social model so idealized by the Latin American elite before 1914 and the turning instead to a celebration of local culture and traditionsWith the “advanced” nations at each other’s throats it became difficult to sustain the idea that Europe represented a higher form of “civilization” or “progress”
60The war tarnished the European image of progress and civilization “…obliging a turning toward America”The war did, however, stimulate the formation of a more genuine economic critique of the country’s dependent economic positionWar seems only to have confirmed the views of leading Chilean critics that a greater degree of economic independence was necessaryThese reactions were all fueled by two great revolutions of the time, Mexican and RussianRussian demonstrated the possibilities of a proletariat revolution and gave great encouragement to the embattled working classMexican, offered not only a symbol of national liberation, but also made heroes of the Indian and Mestizo masses, offering an American alternative to the discredited European model
61In many respects the war marked a major economic, political, social, and cultural watershed for Latin AmericaPeru1914 coup marked a long time alignment of the military with the oligarchy, ending two decades of civilian ruleWar had a roller coaster effect on the Peruvian economyExport markets were temporarily cut off provoking recessionWhen trade overseas was restored, the stimulating demand on Peruvian products caused inflationGrowth rates of workers in sugar, cotton, and copper industries accompanied with anarchist ideas made the labor movement that much more militantMex. and Russ. rev. spread radical new doctrines here too, rediscovering Incan past