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18. 4 America as a World Power Objectives: 1

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1 18. 4 America as a World Power Objectives: 1
18.4 America as a World Power Objectives: 1. Explain how Theodore Roosevelt’s foreign policy promoted American power around the world. 2. Describe how Woodrow Wilson’s missionary diplomacy ensured U.S. dominance in Latin America.

2 Russo-Japanese War Russia controlled Manchuria, threatened to take Korea (controlled by Japanese). Japan surprisingly defeated Russia and asked Roosevelt to mediate Russia and Japan meet in Portsmouth, New Hampshire Roosevelt helps iron out a deal, wins 1906 Nobel Peace Prize In 1907, Roosevelt then sent out the “Great White Fleet”

3 1907: Great White Fleet What was its purpose?

4 Roosevelt and Imperialism
What were Roosevelt’s major acts of foreign policy? Portsmouth Treaty b/w Russia & Japan Panama “revolution” from Colombia Nov. 1903 US Navy supports the “revolution” Panama Canal built ( , $400 million) US granted Canal Zone (10 mile strip) “Big Stick” Diplomacy or “Cowboy diplomacy?”

5 Panama Canal Torn between Panama and Nicaragua
Panama was a province of Colombia America helped Panama gain independence, took control of a ten mile strip wide canal zone America also retained the right to interfere, just like in Cuba 10 years, $400 million, 5,600 workers(4,500 were African Amer.) Great for business, but it hurt our relationships with Latin America, especially Colombia

6 Roosevelt Corollary “Speak softly and carry a big stick; you will go far.” “Big Stick” diplomacy European intervention in Latin America might: “force the United States…to the exercise of an international police power.” Taft used dollar diplomacy to keep European nations at bay What is Dollar Diplomacy?

7 Roosevelt Corollary “Roosevelt Corollary of December 1904 stated that the United States would intervene as a last resort to ensure that other nations in the Western Hemisphere fulfilled their obligations to international creditors, and did not violate the rights of the United States or invite "foreign aggression to the detriment of the entire body of American nations." As the corollary worked out in practice, the United States increasingly used military force to restore internal stability to nations in the region. Roosevelt declared that the United States might "exercise international police power in 'flagrant cases of such wrongdoing or impotence.'" Over the long term the corollary had little to do with relations between the Western Hemisphere and Europe, but it did serve as justification for U.S. intervention in Cuba, Nicaragua, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic.”

8 “Big Sister” becomes “Big Brother”
Why were Latin American countries nervous of Teddy Roosevelt? Santo Domingo Cuba Occupation Puerto Rico Panama Canal  Encouraged a revolution Roosevelt Corollary (“preventive intervention”) a Dominican Republic b – Cuba

9 Wilson’s “missionary diplomacy”
Wilson denied recognition to any country that was “oppressive, undemocratic, or hostile to U.S. interests.” MEXICAN REVOLUTION 1911: Wilson refuses to recognize Huerta dictatorship Huerta executed the previous President to gain power 1914: Wilson orders US Marines to occupy Veracruz Huerta’s regime collapses. Carranza takes over.

10 PANCHO VILLA Pancho Villa and Emilio Zapata start rebellion.
1916: Villa’s “troops” invade New Mexico, kill Americans. Wilson orders John J. Pershing and 15,000 troops into Mexico to hunt down Villa. US troops fail to capture Villa, withdrawn to fight WWI. LONG-TERM EFFECT???

11 TR’s Big Stick v. WW’s Missionary Diplomacy

12 Map: The United States and the Mexican Revolution
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

13 ANALYSIS: What were US foreign policy goals during the imperial era?
1. Access to foreign markets 2. Built a modern navy to protect US interests 3. Act as an international “police power” Was the US successful? In the short-run? In the long-run?

Isolationist / pacifist? Does not support dollar diplomacy Loosen grip in Philippines Negotiates with Japan re: CA anti-immig. laws Restraint dealing with Mex. Revolution and Huerta Interventionist? Haiti Dominican Republic Virgin Islands Nicaragua Gen. Pershing’s invasion of Mexico in Pancho Villa Campaign

15 TERMS Panama Canal Roosevelt Corollary Dollar diplomacy
Francisco “Pancho” Villa John J. Pershing Objectives: 1. Explain how Theodore Roosevelt’s foreign policy promoted American power around the world. 2. Describe how Woodrow Wilson’s missionary diplomacy ensured U.S. dominance in Latin America.

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