Roosevelt and Imperialism What were Roosevelt’s major acts of foreign policy? Portsmouth Treaty b/w Russia & Japan Panama “revolution” from Colombia Nov. 1903 US Navy supports the “revolution” Panama Canal built (1904-1914, $400 million) US granted Canal Zone (10 mile strip) “Big Stick” Diplomacy or “Cowboy diplomacy?”
Roosevelt Corollary “Roosevelt Corollary of December 1904 stated that the United States would intervene as a last resort to ensure that other nations in the Western Hemisphere fulfilled their obligations to international creditors, and did not violate the rights of the United States or invite "foreign aggression to the detriment of the entire body of American nations." As the corollary worked out in practice, the United States increasingly used military force to restore internal stability to nations in the region. Roosevelt declared that the United States might "exercise international police power in 'flagrant cases of such wrongdoing or impotence.'" Over the long term the corollary had little to do with relations between the Western Hemisphere and Europe, but it did serve as justification for U.S. intervention in Cuba, Nicaragua, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic.” www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/time/gp/17660.htm
“Big Sister” becomes “Big Brother” Why were Latin American countries nervous of TR? 1.Santo Domingo 2.CubaOccupation 3.Puerto Rico 4.Panama Canal Encouraged a revolution 5.Roosevelt Corollary (“preventive intervention”) a. 1905 - Dominican Republic b. 1906 – Cuba
Roosevelt the…. Diplomat? 1904 – Sino-Russian War 1906 – TR mediates between Japan and Russia TR forces Russia and Japan to compromise EFFECT: TR wins Nobel Peace Prize, sours relations with BOTH Russia and Japan.
Wilson and Mexico 1911: Wilson refuses to recognize Huerta dictatorship 1914: Wilson orders US Marines to occupy Veracruz Huerta’s regime collapses. Carranza takes over. Pancho Villa and Emilio Zapata start rebellion. 1916: Villa’s “troops” invade New Mexico, kill Americans. Wilson orders Pershing and 15,000 troops into Mexico to hunt down Villa. US troops fail to capture Villa, withdrawn to fight WWI. LONG-TERM EFFECT???
“Blackjack Pershing” v. Pancho Villa http://www.lib.msu.edu/diversity/pancho.gif http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/johnjose.htm
ANALYSIS: What were US foreign policy goals during the imperial era? Pg. 547 1. Access to foreign markets 2. Built a modern navy to protect US interests 3. Act as an international “police power” Was the US successful? In the short-run? In the long-run?
WILSON ABROAD – “MISSIONARY/MORAL DIPLOMACY” Isolationist / pacifist? Does not support dollar diplomacy Loosen grip in Philippines Negotiates with Japan re: CA anti-immig. laws Restraint dealing with Mex. Revolution and Huerta Interventionist? Haiti Dominican Republic Virgin Islands Nicaragua Gen. Pershing’s invasion of Mexico in 1917 - Pancho Villa Campaign
Compare and Contrast TR, Taft’s and WW’s Foreign Policies