Presentation on theme: "Ladders As a plumber you will need to use ladders frequently, either working from the ladder directly or using it to gain access to the place of work."— Presentation transcript:
Ladders As a plumber you will need to use ladders frequently, either working from the ladder directly or using it to gain access to the place of work or scaffold. A ladder should be used only for: Gaining access to a work platform, e.g. a scaffold, or Relatively short-term working (duration 30 minutes or less) such as repairs to an external waste pipe. A ladder is not suitable for long-term working; for this type of work another form of access equipment should be used.
Ladders Ladders can be manufactured from wood, aluminium or fibre glass. Because ladders are used frequently, their condition tends to be neglected, which can lead to defects. It is advisable to inspect any ladder before use.
Ladders You should check the following to ensure the ladder is safe for you to use: The stiles/strings are not cracked or warped The rungs are not split or dirty Tie-rods are not missing and are not damaged There is no wood rot There are no temporary repairs The ladder should not be painted as the paint may be hiding defects.
There are certain rules for erecting ladders, which must be followed to ensure safe working: The ladder should be placed on firm, level ground. Bricks or blocks should not be used to 'pack up' under the stiles to compensate for uneven ground. If using extension ladders, these should be erected in the closed position and extended one section at a time. When extended, there must be at least three rungs overlap on each extension. If the ladder is placed in an exposed position it should be guarded by barriers.
Ladders The angle of the ladder to the building should be in the proportion of 4 up to 1 out, or 75°. The ladder should be secured at the top and, as necessary, at the bottom to prevent unwanted movement. Alternatively the ladder may be 'steadied' by someone holding the stiles, and placing one foot on the bottom 'footing' the ladder. This person must not, under any circumstances, move away while someone is on the ladder. When the ladder provides access to a roof or working platform, the ladder must extend at least 1 m or 5 rungs above the access point.
Ensure that the ladder is not resting against any fragile surface (e.g. a glass window) or against fittings such as gutters or drainpipes - these could easily give way, resulting in an accident. When climbing up ladders you must use both hands to grip the rungs. This will give you better protection if you slip. All ladders, stepladders and mobile tower scaffolds should be tested and examined on an annual basis. The results of the tests should be recorded. Ideally the item tested should be marked to show it has been tested. A competent person must carry out this test.
Stepladders Plumbers use stepladders extensively. The first essential check before using a stepladder is to make sure the ground is level and firm. If it is not, you should not use the stepladder on it. All four legs of a stepladder should rest firmly and squarely on the ground. They will do this provided that the floor or ground is level and that the steps themselves are not worn or damaged.
Stepladders When using the steps, ensure that your knees remain below the top of the steps. The top of the steps should not be used unless the ladder is constructed as a platform. On wooden stepladders, check that the hinge is in good condition and that the ropes are of equal length and not frayed. A step ladder should only be used face on to the work, never sideways on, as this increases the risk of the ladder overturning.
Trestles Some jobs cannot be done safely from a pair of steps. In such cases a working platform known as a 'trestle scaffold' should be used. This consists of two pairs of trestles or ‘A’ frames spanned by scaffolding boards which provide a simple working platform.
Trestles Hinge Scaffold boards Rectangular rungs Rope or hinged bracket
Trestles When erecting trestle scaffolds, the following rules should be observed: As with ladders, they should be erected on a firm, level base with the trestles fully opened The platform must be at least two boards or 450 mm wide The platform should be no higher than two-thirds of the way up the trestle: this ensures that there is at least one-third of the trestle above the working surface
Trestles The scaffold boards must be of equal length and should not overhang the trestle by more than four times their own thickness, for example a 40 mm board must not overhang by more than 160 mm The maximum span for boards is 1.3 m for 40 mm thick and 2.5 m for 50 mm thick boards If the platform is more than 2 m above the ground, toe boards and guardrails must be fitted and a separate ladder provided for access Trestles must not be used where anyone can fall more than 4.5 m.
Trestle scaffold boards Scaffold boards are made to satisfy the requirements of BS 2482/70 and are the only boards that should be used. The maximum length is usually no greater than 4 m. If a greater length is required, then special staging is used. Scaffold boards should be: –Clean, free from grease and dirt –Free from decay, damage or any splits –Straight –Unpainted.
Scaffolds Independent and putlog scaffolds As a plumber you will not be expected to erect either an independent or a putlog scaffold. However, you will have to work from one at some stage, maybe to install guttering, or to access roof weatherings. It is important, therefore, that you are happy that the scaffold has been erected correctly and is safe for you to work from.
Scaffolds As a rule of thumb, stand back and look at the scaffold and ask yourself the following questions: Does it look safe? Are the scaffold tubes plumb and level? Are there sufficient braces, guardrails and scaffold boards? Is it free from excessive loads such as bricks? Is there proper access from a ladder?
Scaffolds Make sure there are ledger-to-ledger braces on each lift for independent scaffolds, and that putlog scaffolds are tied to the building. Look for any gaps between the boards of the platform from which you will be working, and make sure a toe board and guardrail are fitted.
Mobile scaffold towers Mobile scaffold towers may be constructed of basic scaffold components or may be specially designed 'proprietary' towers made from light alloy tube. The tower is built by slotting the sections together until the required height is reached. Mobile towers are fitted with wheels, static towers are fitted with base plates.
Mobile scaffold towers When working with mobile tower scaffolds the following points must be followed: The working platform must be provided with suitable edge protection and toe boards. Guard rails should be at least 950 mm high and an intermediate guard rail should be provided so the unprotected gap does not exceed 470 mm. When the platform is being used, all four wheels must be locked. The platform must never be moved unless it is clear of tools, equipment and people. It should be pushed at the bottom of the base and not at the top. The stability of a tower depends upon the ratio of the base width to height. A ratio of base to height of 1:3 gives good stability.
Mobile scaffold towers Outriggers can increase stability by effectively increasing the area of the base but, if used, must be fitted diagonally across all four corners of the tower and not on one side only. When outriggers are used they should be clearly marked (e.g. with hazard marking tape) to indicate that a trip hazard is present. Access to the working platform of the tower should be by a ladder securely fastened inside the tower, or forming part of the tower structure. Towers should only be erected by trained and competent people. There are a number of organisations that provide training for the safe erection, and use, of tower scaffolds against a PASMA competence standard. There are specific requirements laid down for the inspection of a mobile tower scaffold, this inspection must be carried out by a person who has been adequately trained.
Roof ladders Use a ladder stand off to prevent the access ladder bearing onto the plastic gutter The illustration shows what a roof ladder looks like. It is used by plumbers to gain access to chimneys in order to carry out work such as small repairs to sheet weathering. For a full sheet weathering installation, a scaffold would be needed. Roof ladders are also used to gain access to a roof when installing chimney flue liners for gas fire or gas boiler installations in existing flues. They are made of aluminium, which is extremely light, so that they can easily be manoeuvred up the roof. A roof ladder is positioned by turning it on its wheels, pushing it up the roof, and then turning it through 180 degrees to hook it over the ridge tiles.
Roof ladders The key safety points are: The supports under the ladder must all fully rest on the roof surface The ladder must be long enough for the roof on which it is being used The ladder used to gain access from the ground to the roof must be securely fastened at the top and must be next to the roof ladder Gaining access to a roof and completing the work using a roof ladder usually requires two people: one to access the roof, the other to assist with providing equipment. Safety checklist for the roof ladder: Stiles must be straight and in sound condition Rungs must be sound The ridge hook must be firmly fixed
Roof ladders Make sure that the ladder extends at least three rungs above the base of the roof ladder. Use a ladder stand off to prevent the access ladder bearing onto the plastic gutter
Cherry Picker These are use for high level access, they have the advantage over ladders in that they are movable. They do not require set up time like scaffolding. Only people who have been trained in their use are allowed to use them. Before using a cherry picker you should check; –The guard rail is in place –The controls function correctly –There are no hydraulic leaks –The ground the equipment is going to be used over is suitable. –The battery is charged –There are no signs of rust
Further information http://i.thelocalpeople.co.uk/business/zone 98/subzone1/14437793/docs/3867.pdfhttp://i.thelocalpeople.co.uk/business/zone 98/subzone1/14437793/docs/3867.pdf
Stiles need to be in good condition Do not use the ladder if they are bent or split the ladder could collapse. Check the stiles Do not use the ladder if they are bent or damaged the ladder could buckle or collapse.