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Mastitis Inflammation of the mammary gland infection or injury Important reduced milk yield increased culling treatment cost & un-salable milk lower milk.

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Presentation on theme: "Mastitis Inflammation of the mammary gland infection or injury Important reduced milk yield increased culling treatment cost & un-salable milk lower milk."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mastitis Inflammation of the mammary gland infection or injury Important reduced milk yield increased culling treatment cost & un-salable milk lower milk quality

2 Mastitis Clinical acute or chronic abnormal milk, udder &/or cow appearance Subclinical can not detect by appearance somatic cells - epithelial cells & leukocytes

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7 Milk Yield and SCC Lact. Ave.Lact. Ave.Difference in yield (305d) SCSSCC (1000/ml)Lact. 1Lact. >

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9 Mastitis Contagious bacteria Staphylococcus aureus Streptococcus agalactiae Corynebacterium bovis

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11 Mastitis Environmental bacteria Escherichia coli Klebsiella species Citrobacter species Enterobacter species Streptococcus uberis, dysgalactiae, equinus, & many others Enterococcus faecalis & faecium

12 Mastitis Other mastitis pathogens Coagulase neg. staphylococci Pseudomonads Yeasts Mycoplasma species

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14 Likelihood of New Infection Intensity of teat end exposure to pathogens (pathogen load) Likelihood of pathogens gaining entry to mammary gland Ability of pathogens to grow in mammary gland & survive host defense systems

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16 Liner slip & Mastitis

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18 Air Air - when liner slips Air Impacts Droplet Impacts

19 Correlations between Udder Morphology & Liner Slips CharacteristicCorrelation Front udder height-.23 Rear udder height-.28 Udder levelness.25 Front teat distance - before milking.44 Rear teat distance - before milking.34

20 Milking Speed & Mastitis (Phenotypic Relationship) SlowAverage flow rateFast Likelihood of Mastitis

21 Rates of New Infection by Stage of Lactation Dry CalvingLactationDry off Immune suppression Rates of New Infection

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23 Why New Infections Near Calving? Physiological stress associated with parturition Reduced concentration of nonspecific immune factors in secretions Edema & leaking of milk Components of colostrum that interfere with leukocyte function

24 Why New Infections at Beginning of Dry Period? Flushing of teat & ducts is terminated Increased udder pressure & leakage of milk Teat dipping & cleaning stopped Phagocyte function (immune cells) is impaired

25 Why Few New Infections During Middle of Dry Period? Low stress Decreased intramammary pressure Keratin plug Increased leukocyte concentration Increased concentrations of nonspecific immune factors (lactoferrin)

26 Exposure to Pathogens Contagious pathogens Reservoir - infected glands Milking equipment, hands, hygiene practices, teat conditions Environmental pathogens Exposure to teat surface is mostly between milkings

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29 Detection & Diagnosis of Mastitis Herd level SCC Conductivity Bulk tank cultures Herd cultures

30 Detection & Diagnosis of Mastitis Cow level Physical examination Appearance of milk California mastitis test (CMT) SCC Conductivity Antibody tests (Staph. Aureus) Individual cow/quarter cultures

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34 infected udder Test tube to aseptically collect samples

35 Possible infected udder 2 to 3 streams of foremilk

36 .1 ml sample is drawn

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39 Changes in Milk Composition Associated with Increased SCC ConstituentNormal milkHigh SCC milk SNF Fat Lactose Total protein Total casein Whey protein.81.3

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41 Changes in Milk Composition Associated with Increased SCC ConstituentNormal milkHigh SCC milk Serum albumin Lactoferrin Immunoglobulins Sodium Chloride Potassium Calcium.12.04

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44 Control of Mastitis Premilking preparation Cleaning & drying teats Limit water & dry - use indiv. towel Predipping Can help with environmental mastitis Methods? Hazards?

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46 Control of Mastitis Teat dipping (post milking) Contagious pathogens mostly (50% reduction in new infections) Tested products only (Iodine or Chlorine based) Barrier dips Hazards/problems? Application methods?

47 Teat Dipping Techniques Spraying

48 Teat Dipping Techniques Spraying Side spray does NOT cover all of teat touched by liner!!

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50 Teat Dipping Techniques Spraying

51 Teat Dipping Techniques Spraying Be sure to cover all the teat touched by the liner!!

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53 Teat Dipping Techniques Cup Dipping Be sure to cover all the teat touched by the liner!!

54 Control of Mastitis Dry cow therapy Treat all cows/quarters Cures existing infections Decreases new infections at drying off (Strep. Ag. - not E. coli.) Does not impact new infections at calving Hazards/problems? Application methods?

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56 Partial Insertion Short cannula Long cannula Do NOT insert long cannula all the way into the teat -will cause damage to keratin

57 Insert cannula just through the streak canal -further insertion may damage keratin

58 Control of Mastitis Segregation Sick cows separate & milk last Select replacements carefully Bedding Clean & dry Inorganic if possible Stall design & housing Bedded packs are a problem

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62 Control of Mastitis Nutrition Vitamins (E is critical) Selenium (recommend.3 ppm) Keep cows standing after milking Feeding?

63 Control of Mastitis Vaccination Stimulate antibodies against mastitis Problem - many strains Coliform - J5 vaccines Reduces number of clinical events & severity (not fewer infections) Other vaccines (Staph. Aureus)

64 Mastitis Therapy Antibiotics over the counter drugs 5-6 prescription drugs Extra-label use (need Rx) Careful with residues (withdrawl) Intramammary infusion or under skin

65 Mastitis Therapy - When & How to Use Subclinical mastitis (SCC or conductivity)? Clinical mastitis Know pathogens involved - critical Historical record is critical to success Severity is important

66 Mastitis Therapy - When & How to Use Coliform mastitis Acute or peracute - vet or intense treatment including fluid & anti- inflammatory Mild to moderate - oxytocin & milking Antibiotic therapy - not indicated Problems/issues?

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69 Mastitis Therapy - When & How to Use Staph. aureus Antibiotic therapy - try initially Problems/issues? Strep. agalactiae Antibiotic therapy - usually works Problems/issues?

70 Mastitis Therapy - When & How to Use Strep. other than Strep. agalactiae Antibiotic therapy - usually indicated Problems/issues? Other species?

71 Heifer Mastitis More prevalent than most people think >50% of quarters infected Coag. neg. staph. Strep. other than Strep. Agalactiae Staph. Aureus Antibiotic therapy before calving?

72 No. Klebsiella Bacteria per ml of Bedding 100K 10K 1K 100

73 No. Coliform Bacteria per ml of Bedding 10m 1m 100K 10K 100

74 Blood agar plate Sample is smeared on a blood agar plate

75 Blood agar plate 1 per quarter Mastitis-causing bacteria colonies

76 Streptococcus

77 Staphylococcus Aureus

78 Coliforms, and other gram negative organisms

79 Control of Mastitis Backflushing Contagious pathogens Necessary?

80 Teat Dipping Techniques Spraying Be sure to cover all the teat touched by the liner!!

81 Teat Dipping Techniques Spraying

82 Teat Dipping Techniques Spraying

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84 Teat Dipping Techniques Cup Dipping

85 Teat Dipping Techniques Cup Dipping

86 Teat Dipping Techniques Cup Dipping

87 Teat Dipping Techniques Cup Dipping

88 Teat Dipping Techniques Cup Dipping Be sure to cover all the teat touched by the liner!!

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92 Streak canal Sphincter muscle

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99 Detacher Setting Flow Rates & Left Over Milk Left Over Milk in lbs.


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