$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Occurs in every flock $20-25 million annually (US) Decreased lamb performance Lamb/ewe mortality and morbidity Ewe replacement costs Labor costs Feed costs (orphans) Veterinary costs
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Milk production decreases - 12% when 1 udder half infected - 58% when both udder halves infected* * 16.7 lbs. less weaning weight
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Average daily gain - ISU Trials*** - 1988 and 1990: slightly lower ADG - 1989: 11% decrease ADG infected: at lambing- 19%; wean- 7%; both- 24% *** Significant difference in creep feed intake
MASTITIS Inflammation of the mammary gland where inflammation is reaction to tissue injury Redness Swelling Heat Pain Loss of function 99% of inflammation results from infection
TYPES OF MASTITIS Clinical: visual abnormalities(milk/udder/lamb) - fever - loss of appetite - depression - death Chronic: - long duration - variable signs - contagious? - fibrosis (nodules): udder palpation Subclinical: * No visible signs *Special tests * Loss of function Mastitis types are correlated to organisms!!!
Pasturella hemolytica “Blue bag” Common respiratory tract inhabitant Range flocks Minimal under intensive management operations? Ubiquitous! Opportunistic! Stressors! *** Lambing time is critical!!
Staphylococcus aureus “Gangrenous mastitis: Chronic Contagious? ** Associated with wounds Invasive Scarring ** milking time spreader
Strep. species / E. coli (coliforms) Environmentals Opportunists ( streps get in every day) High exposure / high stress Many around lambing Streps: Mild but clinical E. coli: Severe clinical due to toxemia Coliforms need H 2 O to grow / get in!
Coagulase negative Staph. Skin inhabitants Subclinical mastitis Minor inflammation Milk loss??? Primary organism isolated in sheep (>95%) Something has to get in!!
Contagious ecthyma (sore mouth) Virus: occurs in every flock, secondary mastitis infections due to teat trauma Remains viable for long periods Nursing lambs - mouth lesions Transfer to ewes teats ** Provide protection for ewe/other animals
Contagious ecthyma (sore mouth) VACCINATION Vaccinate ewes pre-breeding Vaccinate replacement lambs and expose to ewes (ewe challenge) Vaccinate rams *BE CAREFUL WHEN VACCINATING (transmissible to humans)
Lactation Therapy Early diagnosis and detection!!! TLC Keep ewes on good feed and water Use supportive therapy Keep ewe nursing or milked out Work with your veterinarian on appropriate treatments and protocols
Dry Treatment (at weaning) Cure existing infections Prevent IMI post weaning Flocks with mastitis problems Individual problem ewes Purebred ewes with high $ value Commercial dry cow tubes / injectables?
TREATMENT PRE-LAMBING Don’t open teat unless necessary Work with your veterinarian: – Organisms involved; Appropriate therapies Prophylactic therapy: Poor response in controlled & field trials Residue risks must be addressed!