$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Occurs in every flock $20-25 million annually (US) Decreased lamb performance Lamb/ewe mortality and morbidity Ewe replacement costs Labor costs Feed costs (orphans) Veterinary costs
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Milk production decreases - 12% when 1 udder half infected - 58% when both udder halves infected* * 16.7 lbs. less weaning weight
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Average daily gain - ISU Trials*** and 1990: slightly lower ADG : 11% decrease ADG infected: at lambing- 19%; wean- 7%; both- 24% *** Significant difference in creep feed intake
MASTITIS Inflammation of the mammary gland where inflammation is reaction to tissue injury Redness Swelling Heat Pain Loss of function 99% of inflammation results from infection
TYPES OF MASTITIS Clinical: visual abnormalities(milk/udder/lamb) - fever - loss of appetite - depression - death Chronic: - long duration - variable signs - contagious? - fibrosis (nodules): udder palpation Subclinical: * No visible signs *Special tests * Loss of function Mastitis types are correlated to organisms!!!
KNOW YOUR ENEMY (germ warfare)
Pasturella hemolytica “Blue bag” Common respiratory tract inhabitant Range flocks Minimal under intensive management operations? Ubiquitous! Opportunistic! Stressors! *** Lambing time is critical!!
Staphylococcus aureus “Gangrenous mastitis: Chronic Contagious? ** Associated with wounds Invasive Scarring ** milking time spreader
Strep. species / E. coli (coliforms) Environmentals Opportunists ( streps get in every day) High exposure / high stress Many around lambing Streps: Mild but clinical E. coli: Severe clinical due to toxemia Coliforms need H 2 O to grow / get in!
Coagulase negative Staph. Skin inhabitants Subclinical mastitis Minor inflammation Milk loss??? Primary organism isolated in sheep (>95%) Something has to get in!!
Contagious ecthyma (sore mouth) Virus: occurs in every flock, secondary mastitis infections due to teat trauma Remains viable for long periods Nursing lambs - mouth lesions Transfer to ewes teats ** Provide protection for ewe/other animals
Contagious ecthyma (sore mouth) VACCINATION Vaccinate ewes pre-breeding Vaccinate replacement lambs and expose to ewes (ewe challenge) Vaccinate rams *BE CAREFUL WHEN VACCINATING (transmissible to humans)
WEANING LAMBING ?
HOW MUCH MASTITIS IS IN MY FLOCK?
ISU TRIALS 3 flocks, 4 lambing periods 29% ewes, 16 % halves infected at lambing 21 % ewes, 11% halves infected at weaning * * 40% of lambing infections persist to weaning
ISU TRIALS McNay research - 3 years 13-25% ewes, 9-17 % halves infected lambing % ewes, 8-14 % halves infected weaning ** 32% of lambing infections persist to weaning
MASTITIS DIAGNOSTICS “How do I look for (find mastitis)?” Clinical : -milk - udder - systemic Udder Palpation Subclinical * Cultures: Know your organisms * SCC: CMT / Electronic
California mastitis test (CMT)
1 2 0 no gel 3 grape jelly
WHAT IS A PROBLEM HIGH SCC? Early / mid lactation: > ,000 Late lactation: * > million * compare between halves
MONITORING IS A MUST!!!!
OBJECTIVES Minimize number of infected halves at lambing / other times!!! 1. Prevent new infections 2. Eliminate existing infections * $uccess = maximum quantity of low SCC milk
EFFECTIVE UDDER HEALTH MANAGEMENT Understanding mammary infection dynamics Incidence of infections during this period Organisms involved Risk factors affecting susceptibility
Minimize exposure / maximize immunity CLEAN DRY COMFORTABLE Adequate space: sq. ft. - ewes/lambs -open front shed sq. ft. - lots
SOREMOUTH Aggressive nursing
SUSCEPTIBILITY: WEANING Weaning: high susceptibility *** Decrease production!!!!!! Eliminate grain 7 days pre-weaning Feed poor quality forages Change environments Limit water 12-24hrs pre-wean??? Reduce by FEED, not intermittent milking - aggressive lambs - labor - abnormal volume Teat dip w/ persistent barrier
MAXIMIZING IMMUNITY NUTRITION: THE KEY PLAYER Vit E / Se Copper Zinc Vit A/ carotene Vit D Chromium CHO PROTEIN FIBER *** Maximize dry matter intake *** late gestation / lambing/ post lambing
CREEP FEEDING CRUCIAL!!! ADG coming more from feed and less reliant on milk! This still has a CO$T associated!! Creep feeding IS NO SUBSTITUTE for mastitis management!!
Lactation Therapy Early diagnosis and detection!!! TLC Keep ewes on good feed and water Use supportive therapy Keep ewe nursing or milked out Work with your veterinarian on appropriate treatments and protocols
Dry Treatment (at weaning) Cure existing infections Prevent IMI post weaning Flocks with mastitis problems Individual problem ewes Purebred ewes with high $ value Commercial dry cow tubes / injectables?
TREATMENT PRE-LAMBING Don’t open teat unless necessary Work with your veterinarian: – Organisms involved; Appropriate therapies Prophylactic therapy: Poor response in controlled & field trials Residue risks must be addressed!