Presentation on theme: "Milk Hygiene & Farm Management Dept. Veterinary Public Health Fac. Veterinary Medicine University Of Kufa Dr. Akram Motlak."— Presentation transcript:
Milk Hygiene & Farm Management Dept. Veterinary Public Health Fac. Veterinary Medicine University Of Kufa Dr. Akram Motlak
MILK HYGIENE 1.Milk is sterile. The milk secreted into an uninfected cow's udder is sterile. An excellent medium for bacteria, yeasts and moulds that are the common contaminants.
2. Contamination occurs during and after milking, cooling and storage
AVOID CONTAMINATION - From dirty udders and teats by good cow housing and grazing management - Wash off visible dirt from udders and teats prior to applying the teat- cups - Individual paper towels for both washing and drying are preferable to udder cloths.
Decontamination By adopting the simple, basic rules of clean milk production.
CLEAN AND DISINFECTION - After use, paying particular attention to milk contact surfaces which are a main source of contamination.
1. Udder infection How to maintain udders free from infection? - Udders and teats are clean. “ Clean and dry” - Minimizes bacterial contamination “ store the milk in clean containers and, wherever possible, at temperatures which discourage bacterial growth until collected”
Contaminated sources 1.Mastitis (Never eliminate from herd) 1.Infected cow 1.Most are sub clinical 2.Cross contamination from the practice 2.Other sources 1.Floor, dung
Mastitis Control Mastitis reduces milk yields Several types of bacteria sub clinical infections Antibiotic cure the clinical disease
Spread of mastitis bacteria at milking from infected quarters and teat lesions
“ The golden rule of clean milk production is that prevention is better than cure.”
Principle Rules Good husbandry practices. To keep a bacterial count of less than 50,000 per ml. one infected quarter may result in the milk from the whole herd being unacceptable Simple practices can reduce the infection at udder.
Prevention of contamination 1.Keep udder clean as possible 2.Any visible dirt must be removed using clean, running water, individual paper towels or cloths in clean water. 3.Adding disinfection water with sodium hypochlorite at 300 ppm 4.A clean cloth for each cow
2. Milking equipment Milking system –a labour intensive system –Clean milking clothes, buckets, udders and hands are essential for good hygienic quality milk. Milking equipments –Container –Milking machine –Handing milking
Milking Good practice Hygiene measure Clean clothes, booth, hands, bucket and so on.
Container at farm Cool Clean Faster
MILKING EQUIPMENT - Smooth milk contact surfaces - Minimal joints and crevices - Renew rubber components at regular intervals Rupture of tube
Cleaning Equipments 1.Rinsing in clean water 2.Scrubbing in hot (≥45°C) 1.after scrubbing in hot detergent solution, disinfect by immersion in hot (≥75°C) water for at east 3 minutes 3.Apply on the detergent/ disinfectant solution 4.finally rinsing in chlorinated (50 ppm) water. 5.drain dry in a clean place
WATER FOR DAIRY USE - An approved water - Piped supply or chlorinated (50 ppm) before use. - In use of hard water, equipment must be de-scaled periodically.
DETERGENTS - Necessary to clean milking and ancillary equipment effectively before disinfection. - Effectiveness is increased with solution temperature, concentration and time of application.
Cleaning milk production equipment It is virtually impossible with practical cleaning systems to remove all milk residues and deposits from the milk contact surfaces of milking equipment. Cleaning and disinfectant routine is required to have low bacterial counts as well as being visually clean.
Cleaning at dairy farm 1.Water supplies 1.Hypochlorite must be added at the rate of 50 ppm to the cleaning water 2.Hard water (ie. high levels of dissolved calcium and other salts) will cause surface deposits on equipment and reduce cleaning effectiveness. To use de-scaling acids such as sulphamic or phosphoric, periodically.
2. Detergents and disinfectants 1. Detergents increase the 'wetting' potential over the surfaces to be cleaned. 2. Dissolve milk protein 3. Emulsify the fat 4. Increased with increasing water temperature # necessary to clean milking and ancillary equipment effectively before disinfection.
Detergents 1.inorganic alkalis (eg. sodium carbonate and silicates and tri- sodium phosphate) 2.surface-active agents (or wetting agents) 3.sequestering (water-softening) agents (eg. polyphosphates) 4.acids for de-scaling.
Detergent properties 1.Availability 2.An inexpensive mixture For example: in solution of 0.25% sodium carbonate (washing soda) and 0.05% polyphosphate (Calgon)
Disinfectants Objective –To destroy the residue bacteria mainly Alternatives Heat Hot water –> 85C for at least 2 min Chemicals
Chemical disinfectants Sodium hypochlorite Sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) concentrations of 3%–5%
SYSTEMS OF MILKING 1.Hand milking 2.Machine milking 1.Bucket milking 2.Pipeline milking
Cleaning of milking machine Bucket machine milking –a 15 liter capacity –a vacuum supply –not milk more than about 30 cows per hour Pipeline machine –A large scale of cow –can be done in- situ –more than 85 cows per man- hour
Cleaning bucket milking 1.visible dirt and milk deposits on the outside of the equipment are removed with clean, cold water 2.scrubbing all the milking equipment 3.rinsing in chlorinated water (50 ppm) and allowed to drain dry in a clean place
Again! 3 steps of cleaning 1.A hot water pre-rinse which is discharged to waste until the water at the discharge point reaches 65°C 2.Detergent and disinfectant is then added to the hot water and the solution re-circulated (at 10–15 liters per unit) for 10– 15 minutes. 3.Chlorinated water is circulated once and discharged to waste.
Conclusion on milk hygiene and Farm management 1.Healthy cow 2.Clean udder 3.Clean equipments 4.Good practice