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1Mastitis in the Australian dairy industry MASTITIS IN THE AUSTRALIAN DAIRY INDUSTRY Insert presentation date here.

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Presentation on theme: "1Mastitis in the Australian dairy industry MASTITIS IN THE AUSTRALIAN DAIRY INDUSTRY Insert presentation date here."— Presentation transcript:

1 1Mastitis in the Australian dairy industry MASTITIS IN THE AUSTRALIAN DAIRY INDUSTRY Insert presentation date here

2 2Mastitis in the Australian dairy industry TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. ABOUT MASTITIS 2. A SURVEY OF MASTITIS PATHOGENS IN THE SOUTH EASTERN AUSTRALIAN DAIRY INDUSTRY 3. CLINICAL MASTITIS 4. SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS 5. ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITIES 6. CONCLUSION

3 ABOUT MASTITIS

4 4Mastitis in the Australian dairy industry WHAT IS MASTITIS? MASTITIS IS THE INFLAMMATION OF THE COW’S MAMMARY GLAND, USUALLY CAUSED BY BACTERIA ENTERING THE TEAT CANAL AND MOVING TO THE UDDER. THE TWO MAIN TYPES OF MASTITIS ARE CONTAGIOUS AND ENVIRONMENTAL MASTITIS. Contagious mastitisEnvironmental mastitis HabitatInside udders or on teat skinThe cow's environment (e.g. manure, soil) How is it spreadContamination from infected milkContamination from infected environment; can be introduced with intramammary tubes if teat ends are not sterile when treatment occurs. When is it spreadMilking timeMainly at drying-off and around calving time; most cases seen at calving or early lactation. BacteriaCommonly Staph aureus and Strep agalactiae Commonly Strep uberis, E.coli, coliforms, Pseudomonas. Many others occur occasionally.* * Source: Countdown Downunder

5 5Mastitis in the Australian dairy industry SUBCLINICAL VS CLINICAL MASTITIS SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS Cow – no observable changes Udder – no observable changes Milk – no observable changes but significant differences in milk composition CLINICAL MASTITIS (CHRONIC, MILD, ACUTE, SEVERE) Cow – spectrum from extremely unwell to no observable changes Udder – spectrum from hot, swollen and painful to no abnormalities Milk – displaying abnormalities from discolouration, clots, blood, clots, flakes, wateriness

6 6Mastitis in the Australian dairy industry IMPORTANCE OF MASTITIS CONTROL Countdown Downunder has shown that every four clinical cases of mastitis cost around $1,000 These losses occur through: –Lower production –Lower payments for milk due to quality –Increased costs of treatment and culling

7 7Mastitis in the Australian dairy industry CELL COUNTS IN MILK BULK MILK CELL COUNT (BMCC) SHOWS THE CONCENTRATION OF COW BODY CELLS IN VAT MILK. BMCC is an Indirect measure of subclinical mastitis in the whole herd BMCC can provide a guide of infection levels in a herd Each 100,000 cells/mL indicates about 10% of cows are infected Guidelines Below 150,000 cells/mLExcellent mastitis cell count control 150,000 – 250,000 cells/mLGood control. Meets level for premium payment with most dairy companies 250,000 – 400,000 cells/mLModerate mastitis control and cell count control Above 400,000 cells/mLPoor / inadequate control. Milk not considered fit for human consumption * Source: Countdown Downunder

8 8Mastitis in the Australian dairy industry MASTITIS TREATMENT ANTIBIOTIC DRY COW TREATMENT Dry cow treatment is used to treat existing infections and reduce the number of new infections that may occur during the dry period The most appropriate dry cow treatment strategy should be planned with a veterinarian The choice of treatment will depend on a number of factors, including the spectrum of activity, cure rates and how long the cow has been infected TEAT SEALANTS Teatseal is a non-antibiotic substance which creates a physical barrier in the teat canal to prevent new intramammary infections during the dry period and reduce the incidence of clinical mastitis in early lactation Teatseal used in combination with an intramammary dry cow antibiotic has been shown to be more effective than an intramammary antibiotic alone, reducing the rate of clinical mastitis by up to 70%

9 9Mastitis in the Australian dairy industry INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT THE AUSTRALIAN DAIRY INDUSTRY IS RECOGNISED FOR ITS RESPONSIBLE USE OF ANTIBIOTIC TREATMENTS Internationally, the responsible use of antibiotics to treat mastitis has proven to be a greater challenge After European policy makers expressed concern over the link between antibiotic use in livestock and antibiotic resistance in humans, the Netherlands took its own stance and, in 2012, introduced penalties for failing to reduce on-farm antibiotic use including: –Targeting 50% reduction in use –New farm protocols in place, aimed at prevention –Antibiotics used primarily for treatment rather than prophylactically

10 10Mastitis in the Australian dairy industry JUDICIOUS USE JUDICIOUS USE IS IMPORTANT TO MINIMISE THE DEVELOPMENT OF RESISTANCE WHILE MAINTAINING EFFECTIVENESS TO PREVENT DISEASES Requires an understanding of pathogens involved Need to assess any changes in antimicrobial sensitivities over time

11 A SURVEY OF MASTITIS PATHOGENS IN THE SOUTH EASTERN AUSTRALIAN DAIRY INDUSTRY

12 12Mastitis in the Australian dairy industry WHY CONDUCT A MASTITIS SURVEY IN AUSTRALIA? Farmers often make the comment “We need new antibiotics to treat mastitis because the bacteria are resistant to the ones we currently have” Farmers often ask the question “Do I need different antibiotics for different stages of lactation, different ages or different regions?” Farmers will also question their vet “Is this type of bacteria the standard cause of mastitis in Australia or is something different happening on my farm?

13 13Mastitis in the Australian dairy industry SURVEY OBJECTIVES Determine the prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis pathogens in key dairy producing regions Investigate the impact that seasons, stage of lactation and lactation number have on mastitis pathogen prevalence Identify the current antibiotic sensitivity patterns for Australia’s most costly pathogens in dairy cattle Understand the relevance of currently available treatment options used in clinical and subclinical mastitis therapy

14 14Mastitis in the Australian dairy industry ABOUT THE SURVEY SURVEY SAMPLES Australia’s largest study into the prevalence of mastitis pathogens in local milk producing regions, including: –13 veterinary practices –65 farms –2986 clinical mastitis samples over 13 months –1038 subclinical mastitis samples –All positive cultures submitted for culture and sensitivity (CLSI approved standards) –All positive cultures archived SURVEY DESIGN Herd size: > 464 ( ) cows in milking herd Mean BMCC in previous year of 100, ,000 Herd testing on regular basis (minimum four tests per year) and maintain electronic herd health recording system Met acceptable animal welfare standards Project fully funded by Zoetis in 2010 Collaborated with Dairy Focus to run the survey throughout 2011 and early 2012

15 CLINICAL MASTITIS

16 16Mastitis in the Australian dairy industry % of pathogens isolated OVERALL CLINICAL MASTITIS CULTURE RESULTS

17 17Mastitis in the Australian dairy industry OVERALL, 39.3% OF SAMPLES WERE EITHER CONTAMINATED (16.1%) OR PRODUCED NO GROWTH (23.2%) With the contaminated and no growth samples excluded the major pathogens are: –54.3% Strep. uberis –14.8% Staph. aureus –11.7% E. coli – 8.9% Strep. dysgalactiae Total % OVERALL CLINICAL MASTITIS CULTURE RESULTS

18 18Mastitis in the Australian dairy industry WHAT DO THESE RESULTS MEAN AT THE FARM LEVEL? One in six samples were contaminated at the time of collection Farmers were trained and supplied with all consumables required to collect samples aseptically If contaminating bacteria are still present on the teat orifice at the time of collection - they would still be present at the time the antibiotic treatment was infused If a cow is treated with three tubes of intramammary antibiotics per case of mastitis, she will have a 50% chance of receiving a new infection due to poor hygiene! Important to treat the existing infection and not to introduce a new infection

19 19Mastitis in the Australian dairy industry WHAT DO THESE RESULTS MEAN AT THE FARM LEVEL? 54.3% Strep. uberis – environmental contaminant 14.8% Staph. aureus – cow associated bacteria 11.7% E. coli – environmental contaminant 8.9% Strep. dysgalactiae – cow associated bacteria The big four bacteria cause the majority of mastitis – no new super bacteria have emerged Environmental bacteria have taken over from cow-associated bacteria as the leading cause of mastitis

20 CLINICAL MASTITIS STAGE OF LACTATION

21 21Mastitis in the Australian dairy industry CLINICAL MASTITIS VS STAGE OF LACTATION MAJOR PATHOGENS ISOLATED DURING LACTATION OUTCOMES The stage of lactation appears to have little impact on the frequency of the major bacteria Strep. uberis was the dominant pathogen at all stages of lactation and was consistently isolated at a rate greater than 30%

22 CLINICAL MASTITIS GEOGRAPHICAL REGION

23 23Mastitis in the Australian dairy industry CLINICAL MASTITIS VS GEOGRAPHICAL REGION MAJOR PATHOGENS ISOLATED BY REGION

24 24Mastitis in the Australian dairy industry CLINICAL MASTITIS VS GEOGRAPHICAL REGION MINOR PATHOGENS ISOLATED BY REGION

25 25Mastitis in the Australian dairy industry CLINICAL MASTITIS VS GEOGRAPHICAL REGION Regional differences were minor –Western District of Victoria recorded the highest incidence of Strep. uberis at 36.8%, Gippsland recorded lowest at 27.5% Except –Staph. aureus was recorded at 12.7% of cultures from Gippsland, but only 4.5% of cultures from Northern Victoria –E. coli was the second most likely pathogen in samples from Northern Victoria at an isolation rate of 9.7% –C. bovis was isolated at a rate of around 1.5% for the mainland states, yet only a single isolate in Tasmania

26 CLINICAL MASTITIS NUMBER OF LACTATIONS

27 27Mastitis in the Australian dairy industry CLINICAL MASTITIS VS NUMBER OF LACTATIONS MAJOR PATHOGENS ISOLATED BY LACTATION NUMBER OUTCOMES Heifers produced the highest rate of Strep. uberis infections; to manage this: –Maintain a clean environment for calving –Introduce a teat sealant Cows had broadly similar rates of infection with the major bacteria regardless of their age – similar treatment strategies will apply to all age groups

28 SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS

29 29Mastitis in the Australian dairy industry SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS RESULTS SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS PATHOGENS ISOLATED IMPORTANT FINDINGS On a single occasion on some of the enrolled farms, a further samples were collected from a selected group of cows that displayed a high somatic cell count in mid-to-late lactation No growth result for the subclinical mastitis samples (17.4%) was broadly similar to the rate calculated for the clinical mastitis samples (23.2%) The frequency with which a contaminated sample was submitted from cows with subclinical mastitis (40.7%) was far higher than for clinical mastitis submissions (16.1%)

30 30Mastitis in the Australian dairy industry CONTAMINATED SAMPLES - IMPLICATIONS WHY DO WE SEE HIGHER RATES OF CONTAMINATION WHEN COLLECTING A COMPOSITE SAMPLE FROM FOUR QUARTERS? The sterility of the four collectors is not maintained Sampling cows rather than a single cow The sampling is conducted at the end of milking when more manure is present in the environment Sampling is seen as just ‘another job’ at the end of the milking session – a time when attention to detail may not be a priority These cows will receive DCT shortly after this sampling procedure (antibiotics +/- teat sealant) The antibiotics commonly used will not necessarily cure the environmental bacteria that may be infused into the udder if hygiene is poor Significant time and money is invested in applying DCT - the ROI is dependent on strict hygiene

31 31Mastitis in the Australian dairy industry SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS RESULTS SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS MAJOR BACTERIA IMPORTANT FINDINGS Staph. aureus was the organism most frequently isolated from subclinical mastitis samples (17.5%) Strep. uberis returned 141 positive cultures (13.1%) E. coli was only cultured on 10 occasions (0.9%) from the samples submitted from high ICCC cows Regional differences were minor; Staphs and Streps were the predominant organisms likely to be present in a high ICCC cow at the time of drying off Data excludes no growth and contaminated samples

32 ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITIES

33 33Mastitis in the Australian dairy industry CLINICAL MASTITIS SAMPLES STREP UBERIS

34 34Mastitis in the Australian dairy industry CLINICAL MASTITIS SAMPLES STAPH AUREUS

35 35Mastitis in the Australian dairy industry CLINICAL MASTITIS SAMPLES E COLI

36 36Mastitis in the Australian dairy industry CLINICAL MASTITIS SAMPLES STREP DYSGALACTIAE

37 37Mastitis in the Australian dairy industry SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS SAMPLES STAPH AUREUS

38 38Mastitis in the Australian dairy industry SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS SAMPLES STREP UBERIS

39 39Mastitis in the Australian dairy industry SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS SAMPLES STREP DYSGALACTIAE

40 40Mastitis in the Australian dairy industry SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS SAMPLES CLOXACILLIN SENSITIVITY

41 CONCLUSION

42 42Mastitis in the Australian dairy industry SUMMARY A RESULT THE DAIRY INDUSTRY CAN BE PROUD OF Cloxacillin has been the most commonly used antibiotic in Australia for treating mastitis over a 35 year period The Staphs and Streps responsible for the clinical cases of mastitis in this survey were all still 100% sensitive to this antibiotic – a remarkable result given the time this antibiotic has been used Australian vets and producers can confidently say they have been using antibiotics responsibly

43 43Mastitis in the Australian dairy industry THE FUTURE THE BACTERIA CAUSING MASTITIS IN OUR HERD IN 2013 ARE STILL HIGHLY SENSITIVE TO THE ANTIBIOTICS WE CURRENTLY HAVE REGISTERED IN AUSTRALIA Producers may need to take more care in the application of these antibiotics to improve cure rates – focus on hygiene, administration technique and ensure 100% compliance with full course of treatment The industry may need to investigate new ways of using existing antibiotics to achieve higher cure rates, for example: –Extended treatment strategies –Different formulations Earlier detection of clinical mastitis and prompt treatment strategies may also enhance the effectiveness of the antibiotic arsenal

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