2 What’s mastitis ? Inflammation of one or more quarters of the udder NormalInflamedMammae = breast-itis = Latin suffix forinflammationSwellingpainwarmredness
3 What’s the significance of bovine mastitis ? Causes significant economic losses to the dairy industry in the US$ 200/cow/year$ 2 billion/yearThe most costly disease affecting dairy dairy cattle throughout the worldcullRIP
4 What are the health concerns of mastitis ? Animal healthLoss of functional quarterLowered milk productionDeath of cowHuman healthPoor quality milkantibiotic residues in milk
5 How severe can mastitis be ? Subclinical Mastitis~ % of all mastitis casesUdder appears normalMilk appears normalElevated SCC (score 3-5)Lowered milk output (~ 10%)Longer durationClinical Mastitis~ % of all mastitis casesInflamed udderClumps and clots in milkAcute typemajor type of clinical mastitisbad milkloss of appetitedepressionprompt attention neededChronic typecow appears healthy
6 What causes mastitis ? Bacteria ( ~ 70%) Yeasts and molds ( ~ 2%) Unknown ( ~ 28%)physicaltraumaweather extremes
7 Where do these organisms come from ? Infected udderEnvironmentbeddingsoilwatermanureReplacement animals
8 BACTERIA Streptococci FieldlanguageContagiousS. agalactiaeClinical mastitisCannot live outside the udderTreated easily with penicillinEnvironmentalS. uberisS. dysgalactiaeS. equinusMore subclinical mastitisEnvironmentPredominant early and late lactation“Streps”“Environmentals”“EnvironmentalStrep”
9 BACTERIA Staphylococci Staph. aureusSummer mastitisSpread by milking equipment and milker’s handsPersistent, difficult to eliminateIf unattended leads to chronic mastitisOther StaphFound normally on skinLowers milk yieldElevated SCCEasily responds to antibioticsRelapse frequently seenFieldlanguage“Staph”“Staph.Mastitis”
10 BACTERIA Coliforms Groups of organisms E. coli, Klebsiella, EnterobacterEnvironmental source (manure, bedding, barns, floors and cows)Coliforms cause acute clinical mastitishigh temp, and inflamed quarterwatery milk with clots and pustoxemiaJ-5 vaccine
11 Other organisms Pseudomonas aeruginosa Serratia outbreaks of clinical mastitisSerratiaCorynebacterium pyogenesFungiCandidaMycoplasma bovis
12 How does mastitis develop ? CowPredisposing conditionsExisting trauma (milking machine, heat or cold, injury)Teat end injuryLowered immunity (following calving, surgery)NutritionOrganismsEnvironmentOrganismEnvironmentCow
13 Process of infection Organisms invade the udder through teat canal Migrate up the teat canal and colonize thesecretory cellsColonized organisms produce toxic substancesharmful to the milk producing cells
14 clinical subclinical recovery The cow’s immune system send white blood cells (Somatic cells) to fight the organismsrecoveryclinicalsubclinical
15 How is mastitis diagnosed ? Physical examinationSigns of inflammationEmpty udderDifferences in firmnessUnbalanced quartersCowside testsCalifornia Mastitis test
16 How is mastitis diagnosed ? Culture analysisThe most reliable and accurate methodcostly ($ 5- 12)
17 How do you treat mastitis ? Clinical mastitisStrip quarter every 2 hoursOxytocin valuablehigh temp, give aspirinSeek veterinary assistanceTreatment with penicillinsSubclinical mastitisQuestionableAttitude adjustment !!!!!!Don’t expect SCC to go down ASAP (4-5 weeks !)Discard milk from treated cows (double jeopardy !)
18 THE 10 STEPS TO MASTITIS CONTROL ONE: Prepare cows properly for milkingUdder preparation is pre-dipping with a dip labeled for pre-dipping.Pre-dips lower the risk of new infections by 70% !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Pre-dipsIodophors %Chlorhexidine 0.2%Quats 0.5%LDBSA 0.2%Hypochlorous acidBleach ?Use single service paper towels, dry teats before machine-application.
19 TWO: Have a good milking system Milking equipment should be adequate in size, functioning properly, and regularly cleaned and maintainedCorrectly use proper functioning milking machines and properly prepare uddersAttach teat cups after thorough cleaning and drying of teatsProvide stable vacuumCheck for slipping of teat cup linersShut of vacuum before removing teat cups.
20 THREE: Apply and remove machine carefully Properly adjust to prevent liner slippage.Remove machine when cow is milked out, shut off vacuum at claw before removal.FOUR: Dip each teat after each milking using a germicidal teat dip.Post-dips seal the teat ends temporarily for 6 to 8 hoursA must for long term mastitis control programFIVE: Monitor your mastitis score (DHI-SCC, WMT) regularly. Take action when significant increases occur.
21 SIX: Treat clinical cows, follow label recommendations, treat aseptically. Withhold treated cows' milk from milk supply.SEVEN: Segregate chronic mastitis cows, milk them last, cull when necessary.cows with chronic mastitis serve as reservoirs of organisms and could infect susceptible cowsEIGHT: Dry treat each quarter using partial insertion techniques with an approved dry cow treatment at drying off.Cure rate is twice high as that during lactationLowers the risk of clinical and subclinical mastitis during subsequent lactation
22 NINE: Keep cows clean, udders free from soil and manure. Fence off wet, swampy areas.Keep free stalls and stanchions bedded properly.Keep calving areas clean, properly bedded (straw preferred).TEN: Properly feed and care for cows.
23 Summary Mastitis is primarily a management problem Mastitis can be controlledPrevention programs work best when correctly followed
25 Milking Procedures for Quality Milk PREREQUISITESMaintain clean, well ventilated bedded areas for cowsSegregate known infected cows. Milk them last or with designated equipmentCMT all fresh cows by the 6th milkingMilk all treated cows lastChange rubber inflations every 60 days or 1000 cow milkings whichever comes first
26 PREREQUISITESCheck the milking systems or units periodically for function and reliabilityClip or singe the udder hairExamine periodically teats and teat endsMastitis treatments should be done by one or two persons and should be done after milkingCloth towels should be washed after every use
27 Simple Steps “Two trips to each cow will provide a routine to Maxmize Milk Quality and Parlor Performance”…. Dr. Andy Johnson Step One………Strip and Predip Step Two………Dry and Apply
28 Standardized Milking Procedures Stanchion / TiestallWear GlovesWipe off excess dry manure, straw and beddingStrip each teat into a stripcupDip teats with an approved pre-dipAllow the pre-dip to react for at least 30 sec.ParlorWear GlovesWipe off excess dry manure, straw and beddingStrip each teat into a stripcupDip teats with an approved pre-dipDip 3-4 cowsAllow the pre-dip to react for at least 30 sec.
29 ParlorReturn to the first cow and clean teat and teat ends using a single paper towel or individual towel clothThe teats must be dried for at least 15 secAttach milking machines immediately after teats are driedDip teats with post-dip immediately after milkingStanchion/ TiestallClean teat and teat ends using single paper towel or individual towel clothThe teats must be dried for at least 15 secAttach milking machines immediately after teats are driedDip teats with post-dip immediately after milkingEACH STEP IS A CRITICAL POINT !!!!!!!
30 HACCP-based concepts for implementing proper milking procedures in Pennsylvania
31 Steps involved in employing HACCP-based concepts for establishing proper milking procedures STEP ONEEducate owners and milkers about implementing a standardized milking procedure (Benefits !!!!!!)IF a dairy farm initiates and shows sustained interestEstablish ground rulesThey will have to be proactive and adopt changesTEAM EFFORT !!!
32 STEP TWO Establish a team ( owner, milkers, veterinarian, facilitator) Mission statementGoals and timelineWritten ProceduresProtocolsCritical Limits ( SCC > 250,000)Recording KeepingMilking time/milkingBulk Tank Temp; end of 1 hr of milkingSanitationSchedule team meetings to review the process
33 STEP THREE STEP FOUR STEP FIVE Train milkers and owners in implementing the standardized milking procedureSTEP FOURMonitor the application of the standardized milking procedureFloor tests (each step is a critical point !)Laboratory tests (SPC or BTSCC)Monitor recordsSTEP FIVEEstablish corrective actions to be implemented if milk quality critical limits have exceeded.
34 Bovine Mastitis Prepared by: Bhushan Jayarao MVSc, PhD, MPH Extension Veterinarian Department of Veterinary Science Pennsylvania State University University Park