THE THREE ESTATES (or social classes) First EstateThe first class of French society made up of the clergy of the Roman Catholic Church. Second EstateThe second class of French society made up of the nobility. Third EstateThey consisted of the bourgeoisie (middle class), the san-culottes and the peasants; they paid high taxes and had no special privileges. Tennis Court OathDeclaration mainly by members of the Third Estate not to disband until they had drafted a constitution for France (June 20, 1789). Sans-culottes"without breeches“ (a poor class)
GOVERNMENT & LAWS OF THE ERA tailleTax on property and land. Provided permanent income for French royal government. Declaration of the Rights of Man and the CitizenA document that guaranteed due process in judicial matters and established sovereignty among the French people. Constitution of 1791Set up a limited monarchy. There was still a king, but a Legislative Assembly would make the laws. Paris CommuneThe small government in Paris who wanted to resist the conservative leaders of France and tried to form their own government. legislative assemblyA French congress with the power to create laws and approve declarations of war, established by the constitution of 1791. This replaced the National Assembly and took away most of the king's power. The MountainThe label applied to deputies sitting on the raised left benches in the National Convention during the French Revolution. French RepublicThe free and democratic French Republic established in 1946 by Charles de Gaulle. codifyTo organize into a code or system, such as a body of law.
The French Revolution Sprung From The American Revolution
SOME LEGACIES OF NAPOLEON Napoleon's Grand EmpireComprised of dependent states, allied states, and the French Empire. Civil codeNapoleonic Code; this code preserved most of the gains of the revolution by recognizing the principle of the equality of all citizens before the law, etc. Grand ArmyAn army of 500,000 men made by Napoleon to beat Alexander I when he refused to obey the Continental System. WaterlooThe battle on June 18, 1815 in which Napoleon met his final defeat. ElbaThis island in the Mediterranean Sea off of Italy where Napoleon was initially exiled after he abdicated the throne for the first time. continental systemNapoleon's efforts to block foreign trade with England by forbidding Importation of British goods Into Europe. St. HelenaPlace of Napoleon's last exile and death.
FANS OF THE KING vs. FANS OF FREEDOM The DirectoryA committee of five in an attempt to mediate between royalists and Jacobins. JacobinsThe more radical side of the National Assembly. They wanted the king to be executed. GirondinsThe conservative side of the National Assembly. They favored having a king and wanted an absolute monarchy like England. They were the first people to control the National Assembly.
Royalists (Girondins) vs. Jacobins (they hated each other)
IMPORTANT INDIVIDUALS OF THE ERA Jean ValjeanThe protagonist of Les Miserables (seen as an example of a bad guy). Olympia de GougesA French feminist playwright and journalist who wrote the Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen. Demanded equal rights for women from the new French National Assembly. CitizenA native or naturalized member of a state or other political community. RussiaA former empire in eastern Europe and northern Asia created in the 14th century with Moscow as the capital (Napoleon failed to take it)
Yep, that’s Russell Crowe playing Jean Valjean in Les Miserables
LEADERS OF THE REVOLUTIONARY ERA Napoleon BonaparteFrench general who became emperor of the French. Marie AntoinetteQueen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular and thought to be immoral. Her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; she was guillotined along with her husband. Louis XVIKing of France from 1774 to 1792. His failure to grant reforms led to the French Revolution; he and his queen (Marie Antoinette) were guillotined. Jean-Paul MaretA leader of the radical Montagnard faction during the French Revolution. Duke of WellingtonLeader of the combined British and Prussian army; would defeat Napoleon at Waterloo.
THE PARANOIA OF THE ERA guillotineA machine for beheading people, used as a means of execution during the French Revolution. Committee of Public SafetyThe leaders under Robespierre who organized the defenses of France, conducted foreign policy, and centralized authority during the period 1792-1795. Maximillian RobespierreYoung provincial lawyer who led the most radical phases of the French Revolution. His execution ended the Reign of Terror. coup d'etatA sudden overthrow of the government. BastilleFrench jail where the revolution started. Republic of VirtueRobespierre's attempt to erase all traces of the monarchy, nobility and the Catholic Church Great FearThe panic and insecurity that struck French peasants in the summer of 1789 and led to their widespread destruction of manor houses and archives.
It reached a point where anyone could be executed
THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY French National AssemblyThe 3rd wanted to set up a constitutional government that would make the clergy and nobility pay taxes too. Voting seemed to be a problem because each estate only got 1 vote. The 3rd Estate demanded that each deputy have one vote but the king had favored the current system. The 3rd Estate declared it at the National Assembly and swore the Tennis Court Oath until they had a new constitution. Civil Constitution of the ClergyA decree by the National Assembly that established a national church system with elected clergy.