Presentation on theme: "Political Developments in the Early Republic. On April 30, 1789, George Washington took the oath of office as the first president. At this time, Congress."— Presentation transcript:
Political Developments in the Early Republic
On April 30, 1789, George Washington took the oath of office as the first president. At this time, Congress was deeply divided. Some members wanted a strong national government and others wanted to limit the power of the new government. They even debated on what to call Washington, but they finally settled on “Mr. President.”
Congress agreed upon three departments: A Department of State to handle relations with other countries A Department of War to defend the nation A Treasury Department to oversee the finances Congress also created an attorney general to advise the president and a postmaster general to head the postal system
Whiskey Rebellion To help raise money for the early republic, Washington started to tax whiskey Whiskey is an alcoholic beverage The farmers who grew the grain to make the whiskey were angry.
Why Whiskey? Farmers had a hard time getting their grain to market, so they turned their grain into whiskey, which was easier to transport. They received more money for the whiskey anyway. Farmers traded the whiskey for salt, sugar, and other goods. Farmers used whiskey as money to get whatever supplies they needed. Farmers did not have the money to pay for the tax.
The Rebellion In the summer of 1794, a group of farmers in Western Pennsylvania rebelled against the whiskey tax and staged the Whiskey Rebellion. One group attacked a tax collector and coated him with tar and feathers.
Why do you think tax collectors were tarred and feathered?
The Government Responds Alexander Hamilton wanted the government to look strong. He encouraged President Washington to stop the revolt. Washington led13,000 troops marched to Western Pennsylvania and put down the revolt. Washington had proved that the government would deal with people not obeying the law.
Before he retired, Washington gave a farewell address (speech). In it he: Warned against political parties - he thought they caused arguments Urged the nation to remain neutral and not become involved in foreign alliances Urged Americans to maintain and value a sense of national unity.
Why did Washington urge Americans to maintain a policy of neutrality toward Europe?
Using your folded sheets, you are going to take notes on Alexander Hamilton and the Federalist Party compared to Thomas Jefferson and the Republican Party.
The front side will be about Alexander Hamilton and the back will be Thomas Jefferson. Label five boxes accordingly: 1. Personal Background 2. Best Form of Government 3. Ideal Economy 4. View of Human Nature 5. Relations with Britain and France
Political Parties Despite Washington’s warnings, political parties developed. The first two political parties were the Federalists and Democratic-Republicans. The Federalists wanted a strong national government. The Democratic-Republicans thought a strong national government would lead to tyranny.
Hamilton was born in the West Indies and raised on the island of St. Croix At 13, he traveled to New York to study With no support from family, he made his way on ability, ambition, and charm Was small, slim, and handsome
Born in Virginia to a respected family Inherited land from his father and became a tobacco planter Was an eloquent writer and had his hand in the Declaration of Independence and other writings Was tall and lanky with reddish-brown hair
ALEXANDER HAMILTON He became Washington’s personal assistant during the Revolutionary War and continued working his way up Hamilton viewed humans as selfish people who were just out for themselves and distrusted any system that gave too much power to the common people THOMAS JEFFERSON Was much more hopeful, thought that informed citizens could make good decisions for themselves/their country Had good faith in farmers and planters
ALEXANDER HAMILTON Sided with Britain when war broke out between France and England in 1793 Hoped the US would become as powerful as Britain some day THOMAS JEFFERSON Most supported France during the French Revolution They argued that while they regretted the bloodshed, it was the price to pay for freedom
John Adams Becomes 2 nd President After Washington retired, his Vice- President, John Adams (a Federalist) became the second president. Thomas Jefferson came in second. He became Vice- President.
The Alien Acts
Anything that was considered encouraging rebellion against the government was deemed a crime Hamilton approved of this law, believing it would punish those who published vicious lies about the government It was used to punish Republican newspapers who insulted Adams Republicans viewed it as an attack on freedom of speech and press Jefferson drew up statements opposing the Acts