Presentation on theme: "Launching the New Government George Washington took the oath of office as President on April 30, 1789. A debate began on what to call the head of the."— Presentation transcript:
Launching the New Government George Washington took the oath of office as President on April 30, 1789. A debate began on what to call the head of the new government. Washington insisted he only be called Mr. President. Congress approved three departments: Department of State, Department of War, and a Treasury Department.
Washington as President The national treasury was empty. Congress placed an excise tax on whiskey and other “luxury” goods. Excise tax: tax on the production or sale of a product.
Washington as President Settlers living west of the Appalachian Mountains began protesting the excise tax. Congress lowered the excise tax in 1793; most farmers began paying the tax. Tax rebels of western Pennsylvania tarred and feathered tax collectors. At the urging of Alexander Hamilton, Washington led 13,000 state militia troops to crush the rebels.
French Revolution In 1789, the French people rebelled against their king. Many Americans were thrilled with the revolution, especially Thomas Jefferson and his followers (Democratic-Republicans). France’s revolutionary governments began lopping off the heads of wealthy nobles. Hamilton and his followers (Federalists) were appalled by the bloodshed.
Washington’s Farewell Address Washington ran for a second term of office in 1792. Washington warned of two threats to the nation’s future… …problems with other countries …and “the spirit of party.” Washington argued that fighting between political parties would tear the young nation apart. Three states added during Washington’s presidency: Kentucky, Tennessee, and Vermont.
Alexander Hamilton and the Federalist Party Born in the West Indies; sent to New York as a teen to get an education Became George Washington’s personal assistant during the Revolutionary War. Married Elizabeth Schuyler; was elected to represent New York in Congress thanks to his wife’s family.
Alexander Hamilton and the Federalist Party Hamilton had all too often seen people put their own interests and personal profit above patriotism and the needs of the country. Hamilton and the Federalists believed people were basically selfish and out for themselves. Federalists did not trust any form of government that gave too much power to the common people.
Alexander Hamilton and the Federalist Party Federalists believed that the country should be run by “the best people”—educated, wealthy, public-spirited men like themselves. Federalist favored a strong national government. Federalists believed the rights of states were not nearly as important as national power and unity.
Alexander Hamilton and the Federalists In 1790, the nation’s economy was still based mainly on agriculture. Hamilton wanted to expand the economy and increase the nation’s wealth by using the power of the federal government to promote business, manufacturing, and trade. Congress had to pay off all war debts as quickly as possible. Hamilton compromised with southern states by having the capital city (Washington D.C.) placed in the south in exchange for support to his plan.
Alexander Hamilton and the Federalists Hamilton also wished to create a national bank. The national bank would help collect taxes, keep funds safe, print paper money, and make loans to business- people to build new factories and ships. Does the Constitution provide Congress the power to establish a bank? Hamilton pointed out that the “elastic clause” allowed Congress to “make all laws which shall be necessary and proper.” Hamilton had his bank approved and the Bank of the United States established.
Alexander Hamilton and the Federalists Most Federalists supported Britain when a war broke out between Britain and France in 1793. Some Federalists were merchants and sippers hose business depended on trade with Britain. Hamilton supported Britain because he wished the United States would one day be what Britain had become: a powerful and respected nation that could defend itself against any enemy.
Thomas Jefferson and the Republican Party Disagreed with the Federalists on nearly everything. Born in Virginia; Entered college at age 16. Became a tobacco planter. Entered Virginia politics after establishing himself as a planter.
Thomas Jefferson and the Republican Party Assumed that informed citizens could make good decisions for themselves and their country. Jefferson had greatly respected farmers and planters. “State a problem to a ploughman and a professor and the former will decide it often better than the latter.”
Thomas Jefferson and the Republican Party Republicans favored democracy over any other form of government. Believed that Federalist ideas about government came close to monarchy. The best government was the one that governed least. Insisted on strict interpretation of the Constitution. Any powers added to the Constitution were unconstitutional and dangerous. Favored strong state governments because state governments were closer to the people.
Thomas Jefferson and the Republican Party Favored an economy based on agriculture. Opposed any measure to encourage the growth of business and manufacturing. Republicans supported France arguing that few thousand noble heads was a small price to pay for freedom. Edmond Genet was sent to the United States by France as a representative. Eventually Genet was sent back to France.
The Presidency of John Adams John Adams was elected President in 1796 by three electoral votes. Adams was a Federalist; Thomas Jefferson became his Vice President.
The Presidency of John Adams Federalists in Congress passed four controversial laws known as the Alien and Sedition Acts. Alien Acts: lengthened the time it took for an immigrant to become a citizen with the right to vote from 5 to 14 years, and allowed the president to either jail or deport aliens who were suspected of causing trouble. Alien: people who come from other countries and are not yet citizens. Sedition Act: made sedition a crime. Sedition: the crime of encouraging rebellion against the government. The law included printing, writing, or speaking in a scandalous or malicious way against the government, Congress, or the President. The Sedition Act was used to punish Republican newspaper editors. Twenty-five people were arrested; ten convicted of printing seditious opinions.
The Presidency of John Adams Republicans viewed the Sedition Act as an attack on the rights of free speech and free press. Jefferson and James Madison drew up a set of resolutions opposing the Alien and Sedition Acts and sent them to state legislatures. States should nullify the laws. Only Kentucky and Virginia adopted the resolution based on states’ rights. States’ rights: all rights kept by the states under the Constitution. Supporters of states’ rights sometimes argued that states were not obliged to honor federal laws that they believed violated the Constitution.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions States’ Rights theory: The states created the Constitution, and in doing so gave up certain rights. Rights not specifically given to the federal government remained with the states. One of the most important is the right to judge whether the federal government is using it power properly.
New National Capital The federal government moved to the city of Washington in the District of Columbia in the fall of 1800. Abigail Adams described the new “President’s House” as a “castle” in which “not one room or chamber is finished.”
Election of 1800 Federalist: John Adams and Charles Pickney Republicans: Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr Many Federalists would have supported Alexander Hamilton rather than John Adams. Why was Alexander Hamilton unable to run for President?
Deadlock and New Amendment John Adams clearly lost the election, but to whom? Because each Republican elector voted for Jefferson and Burr, they tied. The election was sent to the House, where it also tied. After 6 days and 35 ballots, Federalist Alexander Hamilton broke the tie and supported Thomas Jefferson. The Twelfth Amendment was added in 1804.
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