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Chapter 23. President Lincoln’s Plan (10% Plan)  Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (December 8, 1863)  Pardoned all but the highest ranking.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 23. President Lincoln’s Plan (10% Plan)  Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (December 8, 1863)  Pardoned all but the highest ranking."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 23

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3 President Lincoln’s Plan (10% Plan)  Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (December 8, 1863)  Pardoned all but the highest ranking military and civilian Confederate officers.  When 10% of the voting population in the 1860 election had taken an oath of loyalty, the state would be recognized.  1864  “Lincoln Governments” formed in LA, TN, AR

4 President Johnson’s Plan (10%+)  Amnesty upon oath to all except Confederate civil and military officers and those with property over $20,000 (could ask Johnson directly for pardon)  Oath-takers = 50% of voting population in  Named provisional governors in Confederate states and called on them to oversee elections for constitutional conventions.  New constitutions = must repudiate slavery, secession, and state debts.

5 President Johnson’s Plan (10%+)  Amnesty upon oath to all except Confederate civil and military officers and those with property over $20,000 (could ask Johnson directly for pardon)  Oath-takers = 50% of voting population in  New constitutions = must repudiate slavery, secession, and state debts.  Named provisional governors in Confederate states and called them to oversee elections for constitutional conventions. EFFECTS 1. Disenfranchised certain leading Confederates. 2. Pardoned planter aristocrats; brought them back to political power to control state organizations. 3. Republicans were outraged that planter elite were back in power in the South!

6 Congress Breaks with the President  “Radical” Republicans in Congress were led by Thaddeus Stevens (HOR) and Charles Sumner (Senate)  Radicals hated Johnson and his plan and led Congress to bar Southern Congressional delegates.  Early 1866  President vetoed extension of Freedmen’s Bureau and 1866 Civil Rights Act.  Congress passed both bills over Johnson’s vetoes  1 st time in U. S. history!!  1866 Congressional elections - Republicans won a 3-1 majority in both houses and gained control of every northern state legislature.

7 Reconstruction Amendments  13 th amendment - Ratified December of 1865 – abolished slavery  14 th amendment - Ratified in July of 1868 * Provided a constitutional guarantee of the rights and security of freed people. (made Blacks citizens) * Repudiated the Confederate debt.  15 th amendment - Ratified in * Right to vote shall not be denied or abridged on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. * Women’s rights groups were furious!  All 3 added to Constitution before 100% of Confederate states readmitted

8 Reconstruction Acts of 1867 (Congressional/Radical Plan) Reconstruction Acts of 1867 (Congressional/Radical Plan)  Military Reconstruction Act * Restarted Reconstruction in the Southern states * Divided them into 5 military districts.

9  Command of the Army Act * The President must issue all Reconstruction orders through the commander of the military.  Tenure of Office Act * The President could not remove any officials [esp. Cabinet members] without the Senate’s consent, if the position originally required Senate approval. * Designed to protect Radical members of Lincoln’s government. * Constitutional? – Johnson challenged Reconstruction Acts of 1867 (Congressional/Radical Plan) Reconstruction Acts of 1867 (Congressional/Radical Plan)

10 President Johnson’s Impeachment  Johnson removed Edwin Stanton (Sec. of War) in February, 1868 in violation of Tenure of Office Act.  He also removed generals in the field who were more sympathetic to Radical Reconstruction.  HOR impeached him on February 24 th by a vote of 126– 47 before even drawing up the charges!  11 week trial = Johnson acquitted 35 to 19 (one short of required 2/3’s vote).  Why?

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12 Freedmen’s Bureau (1865)  Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands.  Established to provide jobs and education to meet the needs of freed slaves.  Many former northern abolitionists risked their lives to help southern freedmen.  Called “carpetbaggers” by white southern Democrats.  Southerners who supported Reconstruction called “scalawags”

13 Elections of 1868 and 1872 Republican Ulysses S. Grant wins the Presidency and continues Reconstruction (Congress oversees)

14 Black Codes  Passed by the Southern states  Purpose: * Guarantee stable labor supply * Restore pre-emancipation system of race relations.  Forced many blacks to become sharecroppers or tenant farmers.

15 Sharecropping

16 Tenancy & the Crop Lien System Furnishing MerchantTenant FarmerLandowner  Loan tools and seed up to 60% interest to tenant farmer to plant spring crop.  Farmer also secures food, clothing, and other necessities on credit from merchant until the harvest.  Merchant holds “lien” {mortgage} on part of tenant’s future crops as repayment of debt.  Plants crop, harvests in autumn.  Turns over up to ½ of crop to land owner as payment of rent.  Tenant gives remainder of crop to merchant in payment of debt.  Rents land to tenant in exchange for ¼ to ½ of tenant farmer’s future crop.

17 Blacks in Southern Politics  Core voters were black veterans.  Blacks were politically unprepared.  Blacks could register and vote in state elections since  The 15 th Amendment guaranteed federal voting.

18 Black & White Political Participation

19 The Failure of Federal Enforcement  Rise of organizations like Ku Klux Klan led to terrorizing of blacks to keep them from exercising their political rights.  Enforcement Acts of 1870 & 1871 [also known as the KKK Act or Force Act] were meant to stop those groups, but failed  Southerners wrote/spoke of the “Lost Cause” (loss in the war and opposition to Reconstruction), yearning for a return to the virtues, economy, and social system of the Old South.

20 The “Invisible Empire of the South”

21 The Civil Rights Act of 1875  Crime for any individual to deny full & equal use of public conveyances and public places.  Prohibited discrimination in jury selection.  Shortcoming  lacked a strong enforcement mechanism.  No new civil rights act was attempted for 90 years!

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23 1876 Presidential Tickets Republicans – Rutherford B. Hayes/William Wheeler Democrats – Samuel Tilden/Thomas Hendricks

24 The Political Crisis of 1877  Tilden and Hayes tied – HOR to decide  Compromise of Hayes agreed to remove troops from South and end Reconstruction; became President  “Corrupt Bargain” Part II?

25 Lasting Political Effects of Reconstruction  By end of 1877, every southern state gov’t had been “redeemed” – political power had been restored to the Democrats (“Redeemers” or “Bourbons”)  States became known as the “Solid South”, voting Democratic in every election for the next 100 years.

26 Lasting Economic Effects of Reconstruction  Federal and state gov’ts lowered taxes and reduced spending but at the cost of diminishing services like education.  South became more industrialized – textile mills, tobacco, iron, and lumber industries.  Railroads expanded into South and West.  Black “middle class” developed  Economically inferior to white middle class  Former slaves acquired property, established small businesses, and entered professions.  Black churches/schools vital to black communities  Basis of success = EDUCATION!

27 Lasting Social Effects of Reconstruction: “Jim Crow” Laws  Meant to deny African-Americans full citizenship - rarely received “equal protection under the law”  Kept from voting by poll taxes, literacy tests, grandfather clauses, white primaries, threats and violence.  Often lynched for being too “uppity” or suspected of a crime against whites.  Laws enforced/perpetuated segregation and discrimination (de jure segregation)  Areas without laws requiring segregation often had de facto segregation – separation by custom and tradition.

28 Lasting Social Effects of Reconstruction – Civil Rights  Booker T. Washington – founder and president of Tuskegee Institute in Alabama  1895 –“Atlanta Compromise” speech, said African Americans should focus on education (learning trades/skills) and economic independence before political rights.

29 Establishment of Historically Black Colleges in the South

30 Lasting Social Effects of Reconstruction – Civil Rights  Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)  Homer Plessy – African- American arrested in Louisiana for riding in a “whites only” railroad car.  Supreme Court said the 14 th amendment’s equal protection clause required only equal public facilities for the two races, NOT equal access.  Instituted the “separate but equal” doctrine.

31 Lasting Social Effects of Reconstruction – Civil Rights  W.E.B. DuBois – opposed to Booker T. Washington’s ideas  Argued that under 14 th Amendment, African- Americans should already have equal rights  Worked for immediate political power and equality.  Founded the Niagara Movement – est. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1908  Editor of “The Crisis”  “Talented 10 th ” should be given full and immediate access to mainstream American life.


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