Presentation on theme: "1. The Aftermath 2. Problems: The South Freedmen Leadership 3. President Andrew Johnson 4. Power Struggle: Johnson vs. Congress President’s plan: gentle---1865."— Presentation transcript:
1. The Aftermath 2. Problems: The South Freedmen Leadership 3. President Andrew Johnson 4. Power Struggle: Johnson vs. Congress President’s plan: gentle---1865 to 1867 Radical Republicans---opposed Johnson Congress’s plan: harsh---1867 to 1876 until??????South followed Johnson’s plan until?????? Notes: Reconstruction defined
What went wrong? Black Codes---1865 to 1866 Johnson vetoed Civil Rights Act for Freedmen impeachedCongress impeached Pres. Johnson---1868 harshElection of 1868: President Grant enforces Congress’s “harsh” plan Reconstruction Act of 1867 4. Revolutionary changes Civil War Amendments: 13th, 14th and 15th Effects of Emancipation on Freedmen Freedmen’s Bureau New South Notes: Presidential and Congressional Recons Abolished slavery gained citizenship right to vote
Human toll of the Civil War: The North lost 364,000 soldiers. The South lost 260,000 soldiers. Reconstruction Between 1865 and 1877, the federal government carried out a program to repair the damage to the South and restore the southern states to the Union. This program was known as Reconstruction. Freedmen Freedmen (freed slaves) were starting out their new lives in a poor region with slow economic activity. Plantation owners lost slave labor worth $3 billion. Freedmen Poor white Southerners could not find work because of new job competition from Freedmen. The war had destroyed two thirds of the South’s shipping industry and about 9,000 miles of railroad.
are in; to bind up the nation’s wounds….to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and a lasting peace, among ourselves, and with all nations.” Lincoln’s speech Lincoln speech “With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we
gentle Johnson’s plan to readmit the South was considered too gentle. Amnesty: Presidential pardon Rebels sign an oath of allegianceRebels sign an oath of allegiance 10% of the population10% of the population Even high ranking Confederate officialsEven high ranking Confederate officials Write new state Constitutions approve the 13th Amendmentapprove the 13th Amendment reject secession and state’s rightsreject secession and state’s rights submit to U.S. Government authoritysubmit to U.S. Government authority No mention of Education for freedmenEducation for freedmen Citizenship and voting rightsCitizenship and voting rights Presidential Reconstruction
Remained loyal to the Union during the Civil War. Lincoln chose him as his VP to help with the South’s Reconstruction. Supported Lincoln’s Plan Engaged in a power struggle with Congress over who would lead the country through Reconstruction. Would be impeached but not removed from office. Remained loyal to the Union during the Civil War. Lincoln chose him as his VP to help with the South’s Reconstruction. Supported Lincoln’s Plan Engaged in a power struggle with Congress over who would lead the country through Reconstruction. Would be impeached but not removed from office. John Picture background info
Plans compared Amnesty : Presidential pardonAmnesty : Presidential pardon oath of allegiance---50% high ranking Confederate officials loose voting rights if you don’t sign oath Write new state ConstitutionsWrite new state Constitutions Ratify: 13, 14 & 15 Amendments reject secession and state’s rights submit to U.S. Government authority Help for FreedmenHelp for Freedmen Freedmen’s Bureau for education 40 acres and a mule Divide the South into 5 military districts Reconstruction Act of 1867-(Harsh) Reconstruction Act of 1867--76 (Harsh)
Thaddeus Stevens Charles Summner Wanted to the see the South punished. Advocated political, social and economic equality for the Freedmen. Would go after President Johnson through the impeachment process after he vetoes the Civil Rights Act of 1866. Radical Republicans
Thaddeus Stevens, in Congress, 1866 “Strip a proud nobility of their bloated estates, send them forth to labor and you will thus humble the proud traitors.” Thaddeus Steven, in Congress, 1867 “I am for Negro suffrage in every rebel state. If it be just, it should not be denied: if it be necessary, it should be adopted: if it be a punishment of traitors, they deserve it.” Quotes of Radicals
One former Confederate Was amazed to see a government which was intent on killing us………now generously feeding our poor and distressed……. Gov of Miss
Similar to Slave Codes.Similar to Slave Codes. Restricted the freedom of movement.Restricted the freedom of movement. Limited their rights as free people.Limited their rights as free people.
As southern states were restored to the Union under President Johnson’s plan, they began to enact black codes, laws that restricted freedmen’s rights. The black codes established virtual slavery with provisions such as these: Curfews: Generally, black people could not gather after sunset. Vagrancy laws: Freedmen convicted of vagrancy– that is, not working– could be fined, whipped, or sold for a year’s labor. Labor contracts: Freedmen had to sign agreements in January for a year of work. Those who quit in the middle of a contract often lost all the wages they had earned. Land restrictions: Freed people could rent land or homes only in rural areas. This restriction forced them to live on plantations.
President Johnson vetoed the Civil Rights Act of 1866 Gave $$$$ to Freedmen’s Bureau for schools and granted citizenship to the Freedmen Congress believed Johnson was working against Reconstruction and overrode his veto. Pres. Johnson impeached Led to the 14 th Amendment President Johnson vetoed the Civil Rights Act of 1866 Gave $$$$ to Freedmen’s Bureau for schools and granted citizenship to the Freedmen Congress believed Johnson was working against Reconstruction and overrode his veto. Pres. Johnson impeached Led to the 14 th Amendment Johnson’s Veto An inflexible President, 1866: Republican cartoon shows Johnson knocking Blacks of the Freedmen’s Bureau by his veto.
Impeachment: Impeachment: Bringing charges against the President. Two steps involved…… 1st Step: U. S. House of Representatives hold hearings to decide if there are crimes committed. They then vote on the charges and if there is a majority, then, charges are brought against the President. 2nd Step: U.S. Senate becomes a courtroom. The President is tried for the charges brought against him. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court is the judge. Once trial is completed, Senators must vote to remove President with a 2/3’s vote. Impeachment process
Brought up on 11 charges of high crimes and misdemeanors. Tenure in Office Act: Tenure in Office Act: Law Congress passed. President can’t fire any of his cabinet members without consulting Congress. fired Edwin Stanton Missed being removed from office by 1 vote Presidency would suffer as a result of this failed impeachment. President would be more of a figure-head. Saved the separation of powers of 3 branches govt.
“slavery nor involuntary servitude shall exist within the United States “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.” Congress enforce The Congress shall have power to enforce by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article. 14th 13th: Slavery Abolished
“ No state shall make or enforce any law which deprives any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law equal protection of the laws “All persons born in the U.S. are citizens of this country and the state they reside in. No state shall make or enforce any law which deprives any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction to the equal protection of the laws.” Congress enforce The Congress shall have power to enforce by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article. 14th 14th: Rights of Citizens
“The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude”. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 14th 15th: Voting Rights
13th Amendment Abolished slavery (1865) 14th Amendment Provided citizenship & equal protection under the law. (1868) 15th Amendment Provided the right to vote for all men which included white and black men. (1870) Voting rights A victory for democracy! Giving the Black man the right to vote was truly revolutionary……..A victory for democracy!
The 14 th and 15 th Amendments In 1867 and 1869 Congress passed the 14 th and 15th Amendments, granting African American males citizenship, equality under the law and the right to vote. In 1867 and 1868, voters in southern states chose delegates to draft new state constitutions. One quarter of the delegates elected were black. The new state constitutions guaranteed civil rights, allowed poor people to hold political office, and set up a system of public schools and orphanages. In 1870, southern black men voted in legislative elections for the first time. More than 600 African Americans were elected to state legislatures, Louisiana gained a black governor, and Hiram Revels of Mississippi became the first African American elected to the Senate.
Black Congressmen First Black Senators and representatives in the 42st and 42 nd Congress. Senator Hiram Revels, on the left was elected in 1870 to replace the seat vacated by Jefferson Davis. First Black Senators and representatives in the 42st and 42 nd Congress. Senator Hiram Revels, on the left was elected in 1870 to replace the seat vacated by Jefferson Davis.
The Taste of Freedom Freedom of movement: Enslaved people often walked away from plantations upon hearing that the Union army was near. Exodusters: moved to Kansas and Texas Freedom to own land: Proposals to give white-owned land to freed people got little support from the government. Unofficial land redistribution did take place, however. Freedom to worship: African Americans formed their own churches and started mutual aid societies, debating clubs, drama societies, and trade associations. Freedom to learn: Between 1865 and 1870, black educators founded 30 African American colleges.
1865, Congress created the Freedman’s Bureau to help former slaves get a new start in life. This was the first major relief agency in United States history. Bureau’s Accomplishments Built thousands of schools to educate Blacks. Former slaves rushed to get an education for themselves and their children. Education was difficult and dangerous to gain. Southerners hated the idea that Freedmen would go to school.
Once Johnson is impeached, Congress passes Reconstruction Act of 1867. The South would be reconstructed under the Radical Republicans plan. Republicans would elect Grant as their President and he would carry out the Radical Reconstruction. “The Strong Government”, 1869-1877. Grant enforcing the Reconstruction Act of 1867 and “forcing” the South to change.
Military Reconstructio n Each number indicates the Military Districts
New South Becomes industrialized Cities rebuilt Railroads Schools, over a thousand Hospitals, 45 in 14 states Diversify economy.
Funding Reconstruction Rebuilding the South’s infrastructure, the public property and services that a society uses, was one giant business opportunity. Roads, bridges, canals, railroads, and telegraph lines had to be rebuilt. Funds were also needed to expand services to southern citizens. Following the North’s example, all southern states created public school systems by 1872. Congress, private investors, and heavy taxes paid for Reconstruction. Spending by Reconstruction legislatures added another $130 million to southern debt.