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Unit 4:Understanding Athletic-Related Injuries to the Upper Extremity

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 4:Understanding Athletic-Related Injuries to the Upper Extremity"— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 4:Understanding Athletic-Related Injuries to the Upper Extremity
Elbow Injuries David Smith

2 Objectives Describe the basic anatomy of the arm and elbow
Explain common arm and elbow injuries that occur with athletic participation Identify common signs and symptoms of arm and elbow injuries Explain common tx parameters performed by an ATC for elbow injuries

3 Anatomy of the elbow Hinge joint involving three major bones
Humerus, ulna, and radius Ulna is hooked to humerus to form a tight joint Radius rests against the humerus and is able to rotate Allowing for pronation and supination



6 Ligaments Joint capsule Ulnar collateral ligament
Like shoulder, surrounds the elbow Gives general stability Ulnar collateral ligament Helps stabilize medial aspect of elbow Radial collateral ligament Helps stabilize the lateral aspect of elbow

7 Ligaments cont.

8 Ligaments cont... Annular ligament Interosseus membrane
Helps hold radius and ulna together near elbow joint Interosseus membrane Joins the radius and ulna together, keeps bones from separating




12 Muscles Triceps brachii Biceps brachii Wrist flexors Wrist extendors
Elbow extension Biceps brachii Elbow flexion Wrist flexors Attach at medial epicondyle of humerus Wrist extendors Attach at lateral epicondyle of humerus





17 Muscles cont... Very important to check distal pulse and sensations to check for blood vessel or nerve damage Several small nerves run through the small spacesand grooves around the elbow on their way to the hand

18 Distal Radial Pulse

19 Preventing Elbow Injuries
Not frequently injured Usually overuse injuries chronic inflammation and pain Tennis and baseball common sports Strengthen and stretch larger muscles, ignore smaller muscles Wrist flexors and extensors

20 Preventing Elbow Injuries
Proper equipment Excessive stress on elbow musculature can result in using a racket with a grip that is too small Alter activities Taking breaks after long throwing days if playing baseball

21 Treating Elbow Injuries and Conditions
Ligament Injuries 1-3° Sprains Ulnar collateral ligament Radial collateral ligament

22 Ligament Injuries Ulnar Collateral Ligament Sprain
Most commonly injured due to stress placed on elbow by hitting tennis ball Direct blow may also cause disruption pf UCL

23 Ligament Injuries Valgus Stress
medial part of joint would separate or spread apart as the forearm moves laterally Common in contact sports or if falling on outstretched arm Sprain characterized by medial elbow pn and swelling, laxity. Tx: RICE, splinting, r/o fx by referral for x-ray. Rehab includes strengthening wrist flexors- help to provide stability

24 Ligament Injuries Radial Collateral Ligament Sprain Rare
Characteristics same as UCL sprain but on the lateral aspect TX: Focus on strengthening the wrist extensors, provide dynamic stability

25 Muscle and Tendon Injuries
Caused by excessive resistive forces or overuse

26 Muscle and Tendon Injuries
Elbow Flexor Strain Loaded movement, elbow and shoulder together Two joint muscle- movement created at more than one joint Characterized by pain and swelling, weakness TX: RICE, mild stretching and strengthening

27 Muscle and Tendon Injuries
Elbow Extensor Strain Excessive resistance to the triceps Falling and attempting to break fall with an outstretched arm Assess carefully, can be an avulsion fracture of ulna TX: Same as elbow flexor strain

28 Muscle and Tendon Injuries
Wrist flexor strain Can result from excessive resistance during wrist flexion movements or overuse Pain over medial epicondyle or humerus or in the front of the forearm TX: RICE and modified activity, stretching and strengthening

29 Muscle and Tendon Injuries
Wrist extensor strains Excessive resistance during wrist extension or overuse Pain over lateral epicondyle of humerus TX: Same as wrist flexion

30 Muscle and Tendon Injuries
Lateral epicondylitis Tennis elbow result of poor mechanics and continual use over a long period of time wrist extensor tendons at lateral epicondyle of the humerus become chronically inflamed Pain over lateral epicondyle and minimal swelling TX: reduce pain and inflammation, RICE, support, limiting activity, mild stretching and strengthening, medication

31 Muscle and Tendon Injuries
Medial Epicondylitis Little League Elbow Inflammation of wrist flexor tendons result of repetitive throwing Pain over medial epicondyle TX: Same as lateral epicondylitis and decrease throwing monitor ulnar nerve- watch for numbness, tingling, or excessive pain

32 Bone Injuries Bone fx to distal end of humerus Fx between condyles
Not common Due to very powerful mechanisms of injury hand planted on ground and someone forcing the arm into excessive side bending Wrestling? Fx between condyles Direct impact BOTH ARE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY DUE TO COMPRESSION ON NERVE OR ARTERY

33 Fracture Distal end of Humerus

34 Fracture of Condyles

35 Bone Injuries Epiphyseal and Avulsion fx Ulna Dislocation
More common on medial epicondyle or olecranon aspect Severe pn and deformity- avulsion fx Ulna Dislocation Fairly tight joint Very traumatic Violent hyperextension or a severe blow Obvious deformity, medical emergency

36 Avulsion Fracture

37 Bone Fragment in Elbow Joint

38 Other common injuries Hyperextension
Fall on outstretched arm or receive blow to elbow Problems: Sprain the ligaments at the anterior aspect of elbow Strain the musculature at the anterior aspect of elbow Receive a painful bony compression if the olecranon process impacts the humerus TX: RICE, or referral, hyperextension tape job


40 Other common injuries Olecranon Bursitis
fluid to build up at the tip of the elbow from a traumatic force (usually a blunt blow to tip of elbow) TX: Compression wraps, massage, stim, US, protect with padding, MD to drain the fluid (???)


42 Elbow Dislocation Reduce if medical personnel is available
If no medical personnel present needs to ER for x-rays and reduction May compromise nerves and arteries. Check distal pulse after reduction












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