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Elbow, Forearm, wrist, and hand. Understand  Anatomy of the elbow, forearm, wrist, and hand  Principles of rehab exercises  Preventive/supportive techniques.

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Presentation on theme: "Elbow, Forearm, wrist, and hand. Understand  Anatomy of the elbow, forearm, wrist, and hand  Principles of rehab exercises  Preventive/supportive techniques."— Presentation transcript:

1 Elbow, Forearm, wrist, and hand

2 Understand  Anatomy of the elbow, forearm, wrist, and hand  Principles of rehab exercises  Preventive/supportive techniques and protective devices  Identify components of evaluation format  Recognize the common injuries

3 ELBOW  Permits movements of flexion, extension, pronation, and supination.  Delivers and receives accidental blows that can cause bruising, fracture, dislocation or nerve damage.  Excessive stress are placed on elbow in throwing and racquet sports

4  Humerus- largest bone of the upper extremity. -two articulating condyles at distal end  Ulna- remains stationary  Radius-rotates on the ulna as the forearm, wrist, and hand pronate and supinate. The proximal end has a bony protuberance called the olecranon process. olecranon process articulates with the proximal radius.

5  Very strong ligamentous and muscular support  Attach at the condyles of the humerus  Medial condyle articulates with the ulna for flexion and extension  Lateral condyle articulates with the radius for pronation and supination

6 - JOINTS  Humeroulnar  Humeroradial - LIGAMENTS  Ulnar collateral  Radial collateral  Annular ligaments-adds elbow stability, attaches to the ulna and completely encircles the head of the radius. Helps keep the radius and ulna from separating.  Medial collateral-attached to the humerus and the ulna  Lateral collateral-attached to the humerus and the radius

7  Control elbow- Originate above the elbow on the humerus and the scapula.  Biceps  Triceps  Brachialis Control forearm, wrist, and fingers -originate on the two epicondyles of the humerus.  Flexor carpi radialis (flexion and pronation)  Flexor carpi ulnaris (flexion and pronation)  Flexor digitorum sublimis (flexion and pronation)  Flexor pollicis longus (flextion and pronation)  Extensor digitorum communis (extension and supination)  Extensor carpi radials longus and brevis (extension and supination)  Extensor carpi ulnaris (extension and supination)  Extensor pollicis longus (extension and supination)

8 Test for collateral ligaments stability 1. Valgus or abduction stress-(medial collateral) 2. Varus or adduction stress-(lateral collateral) Epicondylitis tests-lateral 1. Resisted wrist extension 2. Resisted long finger extension 3. Palmar flexion-pronation stretch Epicondylitis tests-medial 1. Resisted wrist flexion 2. Wrist extension-supination stretch

9  Bony integrity tests 1. Anatomical snuffbox compression- fracture of scaphoid 2. Murphy’s sign-dislocation of lunate

10  sprains: 1 st, 2 nd, and 3 rd degrees  Olecranon brusitis: inflammation to the olecranon bursa. (direct blow or overuse) Referral, after evaluated basic treatment.  Carpal tunnel syndrome: pressure on the median nerve caused by constriction in the carpal tunnel. Treatment: wrist splints, rest, and medication. Medical re-evaluation is doesn’t get better.  Scaphoid fracture: (navicular) fall extended wrist. Poor blood supply. Severe pain, medical treatment required.  Dislocation/subluxation: force placed on a outstretched hand with elbow in extension. Always suspect a fracture. Medical referral.  Epicondylitis: inflammation of the epicondyle and the tissues adjoining the humerus. Elbow joint medial (pitches elbow) and lateral (tennis elbow)  Contusion  Subungual hematoma: fingernail receives a contusion (bruise), accumulation of blood under the fingernail. Ice and medical referral if swelling is severe.

11 ROM  Elbow: flexion, extension, supination, pronation  Wrist: flexion, extension, radial deviation, ulnar deviation, supination, pronation  Fingers: flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, opposition Resistance/strengthening exercises  Elbow: arm flexion (bicep curls) arm extension (triceps extension)  wrist, hand, fingers: hand squeeze, finger abduction, pinch grip, lateral/key pinch grip Return to competition guidelines  Full ROM  Strength, power, and endurance according to athlete and sport  No pain in upper extremity during running, jumping, or cutting


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