the normal value of carrying angle is 10-5 degrees valgum a) Cubitum Varum: abnormal decrease in carrying angle. b) Cubitum Valgum: abnormal increase in the angle. 1- Changes in Carrying Angle
2- Changes in bony alignment following fractures: Fracture of distal humerus or proximal ulna can alter the normal orientation of the articular surfaces of humeroulnar articulation.
a)F rom frontal view: Any change in the relative alignment olecranon between the two humeral epicondyles affects both flexion and extension ranges
2- Cubitum Recurvatum: hyperextension of elbow joint. ii. a hypothetical increase in the superior orientation of the trochlear notch increases extension ROM and decreases flexion ROM.
a) Posterior dislocation: b) As there is little bony limitation to the trochlear notch being pushed off trochlea. b) Posterolateral dislocation: More frequent, occur in a combination of lateral and posterior movement of the forearm resulting from a force directed laterally on the distal forearm.
Occur at preschool children due to weakness of the annular ligament that allow the radial head to slip away from its ring by the tensile force applied to fore arm
Position of comfort in case of swelling is significant elbow flexi which is due to minimized tension on joint capsule at 80 degree flexion thus reducing stress on ligaments and minimize pain. But if condition persists this leads to flexion contractures.
6-Bursitis Superficial location makes it extremely susceptible to injury (acute or chronic) -- direct blow
a) Medial Epicondylitis – chronic “Pitcher ’ s, Golfer Elbow ” : Caused by repeated flexion (common flexor tendon), valgus stresses, faulty biomechanics b) Lateral Epicondylitis – chronic “Tennis Elbow” Caused by -overuse of extensor /supinator muscles, faulty biomechanics (common extensor tendon). -faulty backhand, too much topspin, too small or large grip.
a) Flexor groups: Biceps Brachii Brachioradialis Pronator Teres Brachialis
Effect of weakness: Loss of flexion and radioulnar supination strength that is compensated by other muscles. Also may cause slight weakness in shoulder flexion Supinated pronated
Effect of tightness: Limited extension range in elbow and shoulder with tightness degree changes by alteration in other joint positions if Shoulder in extension position lead to limit extension range at elbow and vice versa - Forearm pronation lead to limit extension range at elbow and vice vera
Effect of weakness: Decreased elbow flexion in all forearm ranges. Effect of tightness: Limited extension range regardless of shoulder and forearm position. Brachialis n.b. differentiate between brachialis tightness and anterior capsular tightness Tight muscular tissue feel rubbery or springy at end range. Capsular tightness end feel is harder and less spring
Effect of weakness: Decreased elbow flexion strength in addition to decreased resisted pronation and supination as forearm moves toward neutral position Effect of tightness: Limited extension range in elbow and supination and pronation range During rapid elbow flexion it acts as stabilizing to elbow joint against radial aaceleration
Effect of weakness: Decreased forearm forceful supination strength in case of intact biceps. No supination with elbow extended. Effect of tightness: A two joint muscle thus max tightness appear when performing elbow extension and pronation
Effect of weakness: Decreased elbow flexion and forearm pronation strength In loading situations as loosening a screw Effect of tightness: Limited extension range in elbow and supination. A two joint muscle thus max tightness appear when performing elbow extension and supination Pronator Teres
Effect of weakness: A profound decrease in elbow extension. In tetraplegia with zero triceps push up could be done with elbow mechanically locked in hyperextension. Effect of tightness: Limited flexion range in elbow and may contribute to diminished shoulder elevation ROM that could interferes with functional daily activities as most daily activities can be performed with a total elbow flexion excursion of about 100°. Ex personal care activities as feeding and hygeine.
Other j positions Effect of tightness (range) Effect of weakness (strength)Muscle - Shoulder radioulna r Elbow ext. range pron. Range - Elbow flex. strength - flex. strength at shoulder - Sup. strength Biceps brachii Non elbow ext elbow flex. strength in all forearm positions brachialis Non elbow ext elbow flex strength resisted pron. and sup. force output as forearm moves toward neutral position brachiorad ialis Non pron forceful sup and pron with extended elbow supinator Radiouln ar elbow ext sup resisted elbow flex resisted in pron Pronator teres elbow flex elbow flexion strngth Triceps brachii