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OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B2.1.1 OCR Examinations A Level Physical Education A 7875 Module 2565 : Option B2 part.

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Presentation on theme: "OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B2.1.1 OCR Examinations A Level Physical Education A 7875 Module 2565 : Option B2 part."— Presentation transcript:

1 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B2.1.1 OCR Examinations A Level Physical Education A 7875 Module 2565 : Option B2 part 1 Psychology of Sport Performance

2 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B2.1.2 INDEX 27 - MOTIVES AND MOTIVATORS 28 - INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION 29 - EXTRINSIC REWARDS AND INTRINSIC SOURCES 30 - MAJOR MOTIVES 31 - THE EFFECTIVENESS OF EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION DISADVANTAGES / EXPLANATIONS / APPLICATION 32 - DEVELOPING AND ENHANCING MOTIVATION 33 - ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION - NACH / NAF 34 - ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION - PERSONALITY COMPONENTS 35 - ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION - SITUATIONAL FACTORS 36 - AROUSAL AND DRIVE THEORY RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM 37 - INVERTED U THEORY - OPTIMUM AROUSAL 38 - CATASTROPHE THEORY 39 - GROUPS 40 - STEINER’S MODEL 41 - SOCIAL LOAFING, INTERACTION AND COHESION 42 - COHESION - CARRON’s CONCEPTUAL MODEL 43 - LEADERSHIP - NATURE / NURTURE 44 - FACTORS AFFECTING LEADER EFFECTIVENESS 45 - LEADERSHIP STYLE - FIEDLER’S CONTINGENCY THEORY CHELLADURAI CONTINUUM 46 - SITUATIONAL FACTORS - TASK / PERSON CENTRED 47 - MEMBER’S CHARACTERISTICS 48 - CHELLADURAI’S MULTIDIMENSIONAL MODEL 49 - CHELLADURAI’S FIVE TYPES OF LEADER BEHAVIOUR 50 - MENTAL PREPARATION FOR SPORT PERFORMANCE 51 - GOAL SETTING - GOAL STRUCTURE 52 - SMARTER GOALS (NCF) Index 3 - PERSONALITY 4 - THEORIES OF PERSONALITY- TRAIT - CATTELL - EYSENCK 5 - EYSENCK’S PERSONALITY TRAIT DIMENSIONS 6 - THEORIES OF PERSONALITY - SOCIAL LEARNING BANDURA / VICARIOUS CONDITIONING 7 - THEORIES OF PERSONALITY - INTERACTIONIST - LEWIN 8 - THEORIES OF PERSONALITY - TYPE A / TYPE B 9 - STRUCTURE OF PERSONALITY - MARTENS 10 - PERSONALITY STRUCTURE - HOLLANDER PSYCHOLOGICAL CORE / TYPICAL RESPONSES 11 - EYSENCK AND CATTELL’S HIERARCHICAL MODEL 12 - SHELDON’S SOMATOPERSONALITY TYPOLOGY SOMATOTYPE / PERSONALITY TYPE 13 - MEASUREMENT OF PERSONALITY INTERVIEWS / QUESTIONNAIRES / OBSERVATION 14 - THE STRUCTURE OF CATTELL’S 16PF QUESTIONNAIRE 15 - PROFILE OF MOOD STATES (POMS) MOODS / ICEBERG PROFILE 16 - THE SELF-CONCEPT - SELF-ESTEEM 17 - STRUCTURE OF SELF-CONCEPT 18 - FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE SELF-CONCEPT OBJECTIVE SOURCES / SUBJECTIVE PERCEPTIONS 19 - THE SELF-CONCEPT WHEEL 20 - ATTITUDES IN SPORT 21 - FORMATION OF ATTITUDES 22 - COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDE - THE TRIADIC MODEL COGNITIVE / AFFECTIVE / BEHAVIOURAL 23 - PREJUDICE AND SPORT STEREOTYPES NEGATIVE STEREOTYPES 24 - POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ATTITUDES TO SPORT 25 - ATTITUDE CHANGE BY PERSUASION AND COGNITIVE DISSONANCE - PERSUASIVE COMMUNICATION 26 - MEASUREMENT OF ATTITUDES OBSERVATION / PHYSIOLOGICAL TESTS / QUESTIONNAIRES

3 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B2.1.3 PERSONALITY Personality PERSONALITY unique characteristics of an individual knowledge about personality is important to ensure optimum sporting performance

4 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B2.1.4 THEORIES OF PERSONALITY- TRAIT TRAIT THEORIES general (covering all situations) underlying (inside of and part of the person) enduring (long lasting) predisposition (an inclination or motive formed earlier) CATTELL - EYSENCK’s hierarchical organisation of personality Personality

5 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B2.1.5 EYSENCK’S PERSONALITY TRAIT DIMENSIONS WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS A - B - C - D? Personality A stable extrovert talkative, outgoing, easy going, carefree, showing leader qualities B neurotic extrovert restless, aggressive, excitable, changeable C neurotic introvert anxious, sober, rigid, pessimistic D stable introvert careful, thoughtful, controlled, reliable, even tempered

6 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B2.1.6 THEORIES OF PERSONALITY - SOCIAL LEARNING SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY explains behaviour in terms of the reaction to specific situations we learn to deal with situations by observing others or by observing the results of our own behaviour on others and by modelling our own behaviour on what we have seen –athletes learn behaviour by watching others BANDURA behaviour is determined by the situation –social comparison –behaving the same way as the peer group social approval or disapproval determines our responses –behaviour is reinforced or penalised VICARIOUS CONDITIONING the learning of emotional responses through observational learning example : –learning to become angry after a valid referee decision has gone against him / her by watching other players do the same Personality SOCIALISATION sport has a socialising effect participation in sport establishes norms and values of our society

7 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B2.1.7 THEORIES OF PERSONALITY - INTERACTIONIST INTERACTIONIST THEORIES traits determine behaviour but can be modified by situations –traits –situations –behaviour LEWIN behaviour is a function of both the person (personality P) and the environment (E) B = f(P,E) Personality

8 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B2.1.8 THEORIES OF PERSONALITY TYPE A characterised by : impatience works at a rapid pace higher levels of stress easily aroused strong desire to succeed anxiety in stressful situations lacking in tolerance has a need to be in control makes decisions quickly without much preparation or thought TYPE B characterised by : relaxed and patient allow time for tasks to be completed tolerance of others’ mistakes delegates easily low personal stress calm and unflappable in most situations less competitive prepared to wait and assess all options when decisions need to be made Personality

9 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B2.1.9 STRUCTURE OF PERSONALITY - MARTENS Personality

10 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B PERSONALITY STRUCTURE - HOLLANDER PSYCHOLOGICAL CORE beliefs and values that remain more or less permanent example : a sportsman’s belief that fair play underlies his attitude on the field of play TYPICAL RESPONSES the way in which an individual responds in certain situations example : stopping fighting at the bell Personality ROLE RELATED BEHAVIOUR in other situations we may behave differently example : striking after the bell when annoyed or frustrated SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT how the behaviour and expectations of others affect our role example : a player argues with the referee because others have done so and got away with it before

11 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B EYSENCK AND CATTELL’S HIERARCHICAL MODEL Personality

12 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B SHELDON’S SOMATOPERSONALITY TYPOLOGY SOMATOTYPE ectomorphy linearity endomorphy plumpness mesomorphy muscularity PERSONALITY TYPE cerebrotonia tenseness introversion viscerotonia sociability affection comfort-loving somatotonia risk taking adventure seeking extroversion Personality

13 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B MEASUREMENT OF PERSONALITY INTERVIEWS before or after the event not directly related to performance open ended and flexible transient feelings or attitudes may be expressed difficult to quantify accurately may be influenced by the interviewer Personality QUESTIONNAIRES before or after the event not directly related to performance rigidly and systematically set out transient feelings or attitudes may be expressed able to quantify accurately would not be influenced by another can be used to assess specific traits OBSERVATION made during an actual event directly related to performance varies according to the competitive nature of the event difficult to quantify accurately may be influenced by the observer’s views and attitudes

14 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B THE STRUCTURE OF CATTELL’S 16PF QUESTIONNAIRE Personality

15 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B PROFILE OF MOOD STATES (POMS) MOODS are an important aspect of personality which may influence sports performance tension depression anger vigour fatigue confusion unsuccessful sportspeople show high –tension –depression –fatigue –confusion low –vigour Personality elite sportspeople show low –tension –depression –confusion high –vigour

16 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B THE SELF-CONCEPT The SELF-CONCEPT is the descriptive picture we have of ourselves including : –physical attributes –attitudes –abilities –roles –emotions representing how we see ourselves which may not reflect reality or the way others see us SELF-ESTEEM the extent to which we value ourselves this may or may not match up to the expectations of others example : –player may take pride in an ability to tackle hard –the referee may see this as unnecessary aggression Personality

17 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B STRUCTURE OF SELF-CONCEPT Personality

18 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE SELF-CONCEPT OBJECTIVE SOURCES photos records results mirrors SUBJECTIVE PERCEPTIONS reaction of others comparison with others identification with models Personality RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EXPERIENCES AND SELF-CONCEPT

19 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B THE SELF-CONCEPT WHEEL Personality

20 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B ATTITUDES IN SPORT ATTITUDES a combination of beliefs and feelings about : –objects –people –situations –(called attitude objects) this predisposes us to behave in a certain way towards them learned or organised through experience evaluative they lead us to think and behave positively or negatively about an attitude object tend to be deep seated and enduring but can change or be changed Attitudes

21 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B FORMATION OF ATTITUDES Attitudes

22 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDE - THE TRIADIC MODEL Attitudes

23 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B PREJUDICE AND SPORT STEREOTYPES NEGATIVE STEREOTYPES women in strength, endurance and contact sports participation of the disabled in physical activity older age groups interest and ability at sport participation of particular ethnic groups in specific sports or positions within teams examples : –the black quarterback in American Football –the black sprinter –the white skier / swimmer Attitudes PREJUDICE a prejudgement of a person, group, or situation usually based on inadequate information or inaccurate or biased information which reinforces stereotypes example : –women are often excluded from male dominated sports clubs or events

24 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ATTITUDES TO SPORT POSITIVE ATTITUDES has a positive physical self-concept satisfaction from participation in sport believe sport promotes health success at sport willing to try new activities encouraged by significant others participates regularly opportunity to participate Attitudes NEGATIVE ATTITUDES had negative experiences at sport have lifestyle which makes regular sport difficult find sport frustrating lack encouragement unlikely to participate in sport have a negative self concept find sport boring

25 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B ATTITUDE CHANGE BY PERSUASION AND COGNITIVE DISSONANCE PERSUASIVE COMMUNICATION the person must –pay attention –understand –accept –retain –the message being given the coach must –be expert –be trustworthy the message must –be clear –be unambiguous –be balanced between emotion and logic –be balanced between pros and cons COGNITIVE DISSONANCE the person must –be consistent between cognitive affective behavioural components the person must be consistent between different elements cognitive dissonance occurs hence attitudes must change –if two factual elements of attitude conflict –example : the smoker who knows that smoking is bad for health Attitudes

26 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B MEASUREMENT OF ATTITUDES BY OBSERVATION related to actual events as they are happening difficult to quantify or measure open to interpretation by observer USING PHYSIOLOGICAL TESTS indicators such as –blood pressure –skin conductivity –brain activity (ECG) can be interpreted to indicate telling the truth –about an attitude object measurable independent of observer but takes a long time to set up requiring special apparatus QUESTIONNAIRES only as good as the questions asked measurable using –Thurstone scale –Likert scale –Osgood’s Semantic Differential Scale Attitudes

27 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B MOTIVES AND MOTIVATORS MOTIVATORS the reasons why sportspeople think and behave as they do THEORIES Motivation

28 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION Motivation INTRINSIC MOTIVATION

29 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B EXTRINSIC REWARDS AND INTRINSIC SOURCES EXTRINSIC REWARDS INTRINSIC SOURCES Motivation

30 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B MAJOR MOTIVES FOR YOUTH SPORT PARTICIPATION fun being with friends thrills excitement success developing fitness improving skills being good at it FOR ADULT SPORT PARTICIPATION health factors weight loss fitness self-challenge feeling better Motivation

31 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B THE EFFECTIVENESS OF EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION DISADVANTAGES adding extrinsic reward to a situation which already provided intrinsic motivation decreases the intrinsic motivation eventually replacing it so when rewards are no longer available interest in the situation (sports activity) reduces EXPLANATIONS the reward acts as a distraction to the sports person’s intrinsic desire to work at his / her own pace rewards may turn play into work relationships with the person giving rewards might change the nature of the activity changes people like to determine their own behaviour rewards may make them feel that someone else is in charge APPLICATION OF EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION to attract youngsters to an activity to revive flagging motivation to help a sportsperson over a bad period in training to provide information about levels of achievement and competence Motivation

32 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B DEVELOPING AND ENHANCING MOTIVATION MOTIVATION IS A COMBINATION OF personal characteristics situational aspects MOTIVATION IS HIGHEST WHEN the performer is keen to participate the performer is keen to learn the performer is keen to perform the performer is keen to perform effectively when the motivational climate is right when the training programme is interesting and varied MOTIVATION IS REDUCED BY routine competition between motives PEOPLE have multiple motives share motives have unique motivational profiles need variation in training and competition need variation in intensity and competitiveness need structured coaching and teaching environments MOTIVES CHANGE OVER TIME TEACHERS AND COACHES ARE IMPORTANT MOTIVATORS Motivation

33 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION the drive to achieve success for its own sake related to –competitiveness –persistence –striving for perfection influenced by –personality factors need to achieve need to avoid failure –situational factors probability of success incentive value of success NEED TO ACHIEVE (NACH) Tendency to approach success (Ts) this personality type likes a challenge likes feedback is not afraid of failure has high task persistence NEED TO AVOID FAILURE (NAF) Tendency to avoid failure (Taf) this personality type avoids challenges does not take risks often gives up does not want feedback Motivation

34 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION - PERSONALITY COMPONENTS A = someone with a high need to achieve will probably have a low need to avoid failure will choose difficult or demanding tasks which are more risky the hard route up a rock face Motivation B = someone with a high need to avoid failure will probably have a low need to achieve will choose tasks which are less risky and more easily achieved the easy route up the rock face

35 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION - SITUATIONAL FACTORS A = probability of success low (competing against the world champion) therefore strive very hard to win (incentive high) (will be highly chuffed if win) Motivation B = probability of success high (competing in local club match) therefore don’t need to try as hard to win (incentive low) (and expect to win easily) (not so pleasing)

36 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B AROUSAL AND DRIVE THEORY AROUSAL this is the level of inner drives which forces the sportsperson to strive to achieve it needs to be under control and at the right level depending on the task RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM RAS is a system within the brain which causes arousal extroverts have lower levels of intrinsic arousal than introverts hence extroverts seek situations of high arousal introverts seek low arousal situations DRIVE THEORY the higher the arousal level the higher the achievement / performance level the more likely that a well learned skill (a dominant response) will be produced Motivation

37 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B INVERTED U THEORY there is an optimum arousal level if aroused more than this performance will decline OPTIMUM AROUSAL DEPENDS ON type of activity gross skills (weight lifting) require high arousal fine skills (snooker) require low arousal skill level of the performer the more skilful the performer the higher the optimum arousal could be personality of the performer the more extrovert the performer the higher the arousal likely for optimum performance whereas introverts would optimise performance at lower arousal levels Motivation

38 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B CATASTROPHE THEORY here performance increases as arousal increases but if arousal gets too high a complete loss of performance occurs (the catastrophe) Motivation example : the golfer who tries too hard and completely misses the fairway from his drive at the 18th hole when in a winning position example : the gymnast who completely messes up her previously well executed routine in a national final anxiety affects arousal

39 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B GROUPS A GROUP IS two or more people interacting with one another so that each person influences and is influenced by the others has a collective identity and a sense of shared purpose a social aggregate involving mutual awareness and potential interaction with structured patterns of communication examples : –crowd at a soccer match –soccer team –parents watching their children swim Groups and Teams

40 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B STEINER’S MODEL team success = potential for success - coordination and motivation problems actual productivity = potential productivity - losses due to faulty processes POTENTIAL FOR SUCCESS usually skilful individuals make the best team usually individual success (of team members) correlates with overall team success COORDINATION PROBLEMS (for players) occur if there is a high level of interaction between them if one player is being selfish or aggressive if a defence is not working together hence overall team performance suffers MOTIVATION PROBLEMS people seem to work less hard in a group than they do on their own example : in rowing, times of winning double sculls are often only slightly faster than single sculls this is social loafing ‘the Ringlemann Effect’ MOTIVATIONAL LOSSES individuals may not share the same motives, this leads to loss of group cohesion example : some players may play a game for social reasons, others in order to win Groups and Teams

41 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B SOCIAL LOAFING, INTERACTION AND COHESION SOCIAL LOAFING individuals reduce their effort when in a group and can hide their lack of effort amongst the effort of other group members can be eliminated if the contribution of an individual can be identified as with player statistics (American Football, Rugby League, Cricket, Basketball) the need for interaction between players varies between sports cooperation between players can be significant COHESION selection of less skilled but more cooperative players the extent to which members of a group exhibit a desire to achieve common goals and group identity friendship groups can have negative effects cohesion has both task and social elements TASK COHESION people who are willing to work together whether or not they get on personally have the potential to be successful SOCIAL COHESION teams with high social cohesion but low task cohesion are less successful Groups and Teams

42 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B COHESION CARRON’s CONCEPTUAL MODEL four factors affect the development of cohesion Groups and Teams ENVIRONMENTAL factors binding members to a team –contracts, location, age, eligibility avoid star system, provide opportunities for socialising PERSONAL factors which members believe are important –motives for taking part give opportunities for motives to be realised develop ownership feelings and social groupings within the team LEADERSHIP the behaviour of leaders and coaches –coaches should use all leadership behaviours to influence different individuals TEAM factors relating to the group –team identity, targets, member ability and role creation of team short and long-term goals rewarding of individual and team efforts

43 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B LEADERSHIP A LEADER can influence the behaviour of others towards required goals will influence effective team cohesion will help fulfil expectations of a team develops an environment in which a group is motivated rewarded and helped towards its common goals emergent leaders come from within a group –because of their skill and abilities –or through nomination / election prescribed leaders –are appointed by a governing body –or agency outside the group LEADERSHIP the ‘great man’ theory NATURE leaders are born not made leaders have relevant innate personality qualities social learning theory NURTURE leaders learn their skills through watching and imitating models leaders are formed throughout life –by social or environmental influences –observation of a model –high status of a model –imitation or copying of behaviour Leadership

44 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B FACTORS AFFECTING LEADER EFFECTIVENESS LEADER CHARACTERISTICS THE SITUATION MEMBER’S CHARACTERISTICS LEADERSHIP QUALITIES communication respect for group members enthusiasm high ability deep knowledge charisma Leadership

45 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B LEADERSHIP STYLE FIEDLER’S CONTINGENCY THEORY there is a continuum between : task-centred leadership best for most favourable or least favourable situations person (or relationship) centred leadership best for moderately favourable situations favourableness depends on whether relationships are warm if the task has a clear structure if the leader is powerful pressure of time CHELLADURAI CONTINUUM between : autocratic authoritarian leader who makes all the decisions democratic leader who shares the decisions (with members of group or team) seeks advice is prepared to change his / her mind based on advice laissez faire leader who lets others make decisions each type can be effective depending on the situation Leadership

46 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B SITUATIONAL FACTORS SITUATIONAL FAVOURABLENESS if things are going well for the team or things are going badly (poor facilities, no support) then a leader needs to be TASK-ORIENTED if things are going moderately well then a leader needs to be PERSON-CENTRED TEAM SPORTS leader should be directive and organises and structures group tasks INDIVIDUAL SPORTS look for a person oriented leader SIZE OF GROUP affects leadership style the more members in a group the less likely individual needs will be taken into account DECISION NEEDS TO BE MADE QUICKLY autocratic style of leader TRADITION members resent change Leadership

47 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B MEMBER’S CHARACTERISTICS A GOOD LEADER will adapt to –expectations –knowledge –experience –of group members if group is hostile leader adopts autocratic style if group is friendly leader adopts more democratic person-centred style problems arise if strategies for preparation used by leader do not match group expectations Leadership

48 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B CHELLADURAI’S MULTIDIMENSIONAL MODEL Leadership

49 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B CHELLADURAI’S FIVE TYPES OF LEADER BEHAVIOUR TRAINING AND INSTRUCTION behaviour aimed at improving performance strong on technical and tactical aspects DEMOCRATIC APPROACH allows decisions to be made collectively AUTOCRATIC APPROACH personal authority least preferred if coach does not show he / she is aware of athlete’s needs and preferences SOCIAL SUPPORT concern shown for well-being of others preferred by youngsters REWARDS leader uses positive reinforcement Leadership

50 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B MENTAL PREPARATION FOR SPORT PERFORMANCE Mental Preparation for Sport Performance

51 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B GOAL SETTING GOAL STRUCTURE easily attained initially progressively more difficult training goals should be planned around overall goals short-term / medium-term / long-term goal setting as a means of managing anxiety / stress goal setting to increase motivation GOALS ARE EITHER outcome oriented –towards the end result of the sporting activity –example : to win a race performance oriented –judged against other performances –example : to beat best time process oriented –improvement in techniques GOALS SHOULD BE stated positively specific to the situation and the performer time phased challenging achievable measurable negotiated between sportsperson and coach progressive, from short-term to long- term performance oriented rather than outcome oriented written down reviewed regularly (with downward adjustment if necessary - in the case of injury) Commitment

52 OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875 Next Previous Module 2565 B SMARTER GOALS (NCF) SPECIFIC directly related to sporting situation MEASURABLE progress can be assessed ACCEPTED by both performer and coach REALISTIC challenging but within capability of performer TIME PHASED a date is set for completion EXCITING inspiring and rewarding to the performer RECORDED written down Commitment


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