Presentation on theme: "AS / A Level Sport and Physical Education"— Presentation transcript:
1 AS / A Level Sport and Physical Education Group Dynamics
2 In the context of interactive sports it is said that a champion team will defeat a team of individual champions and therefore the study of how groups operate as a unit is important Can you think of an example of when this has happened?2006 – Ryder Cup, Europe had one player in the top ten rankings yet won against America!
3 So what is a group?Although a group can be described as comprising three or more individuals, this is not an adequate definition.The important factor in the formation of a group is that individuals interact. Group members should be aware and relate to each other by having a shared objective, which will bring about interaction.“Groups are those social aggregates that involve mutual awareness and the potential for interaction” (McGrath)-
4 What makes a good Group? Watch the following clips of these teams, write down what youthink makes them sosuccessful?
5 What makes a successful group/team? have a strong collective identitymembers have an opportunity to socialisehave members who share goals and ambitionsand share ownership of ideashave members who are able to communicate effectively (on the same wavelength)have strong cohesion (see later slides)have members who value relationships within the grouphave a successful coach or leader (see later slides)who ensures that members’ contributions to the group are valued
6 GROUP COHESION According to Carron, a group will form a “bond” if the following characteristics are inplace:A collective identityA sense of shared purposeA clear structure for communicationThe term given to describe the degree ofsuccessful bonding or the strength of acollective group co-operation is calledGROUP COHESION
7 Group cohesion: two dimensions TASK COHESIONRelates to the way in which team members workwith each other to successfully complete a task.2. SOCIAL COHESIONInvolves personal relationships within the groupAnd relies on individuals enjoying social interaction
8 TASK COHESIONTo develop task cohesion the group will be given an overall team goal which is accepted and valued by all team members. To achieve the long-term goal there must be a collective affiliation to team tactics and strategies of play. e.g. A football team may set out to win the league by adopting an attacking policy at home and away matches. Task cohesion is most important in interactive games, e.g hockey
9 SOCIAL COHESIONTo develop social cohesion the group leader would create opportunities for social development. An environment would be created where players could interact positively by relaxing and making friends. e.g. A touring team often develops strong social bonds. Social cohesion is most important in Co-active sports, e.g track and field
10 TASK - Identify a successful sports team or organisation By applying the terms of McGrath and Carron, discuss in pairs how well the team operates as a unitIdentify outstanding individuals, key pairings or sub-groups that operate in the context of the whole groupIdentify an occasion when the cohesiveness of the unit had broken down and suggest reasons for thisDiscuss how cohesiveness was restored
11 CARRON’s MODEL FOUR factors affect the development of cohesion ENVIRONMENTALfactors binding members to a teamcontracts, location, age, eligibilityavoid star system, provide opportunities for socialisingPERSONALfactors which members believe are importantmotives for taking partdevelop ownership feelings and social groupings within the teamLEADERSHIPthe behaviour of leaders and coachesTEAMfactors relating to the groupteam identity, targets, member ability and rolecreation of team short and long-term goalsrewarding of individual and team efforts
12 SOCIO-GRAMOne way to gather information about the dynamics of a group is to compile a socio-gram. In a socio-gram, each player nominates players with whom they could best work within a team situation
13 TASK - identify the following: Who is the most popular and would possibly be captain?Who is an exclusive group. The term given to a sub-group.Who are reciprocal pairs. Friends who vote for each other.Who would be a reject? Making nominations but receiving none back.Who is an Isolate, someone who made and received no nominations.
15 COHESION - BreakdownMost team sports rely on units within a team working closely together and individuals performing tasks that may remain unnoticed by spectators. The potential of the team to function as a cohesive unit is affected when co- ordination between team players fails and motivation of the individual drops.
16 STEINER’S MODELActual Potential Losses due Productivity = Productivity – to Faulty Process (AP=PP-FP) Actual productivity is the team performance at a given time during the game. Potential productivity Is the maximum capability of the group when cohesiveness is strongest. Faulty processes relate to the factors that can go wrong in team performance, which will affect the group cohesion and collective potential.
17 There are two faulty processes that bring about losses in potential productivity: Co-ordination lossesThese losses occur because the effectiveness ofthe group as a unit cannot be sustained for theduration of a match. Even the most carefullyplanned and rehearsed strategies may failoccasionally because of a positional error or an illtimed move.Any breakdown in teamwork is regarded as aco-ordination loss and is termed the RINGLEMANeffect.
18 Ringleman effect: Ringleman stated that problems in team co-ordination are more likely to occur as the team numbers increase. Research was done where a team of eight in a tug of war did not pull eight times as hard as solo performers!! 2. MOTIVATION LOSSES These relate to an individual who suffers a reduction of motivation during performance causing the player to withdraw effort and coast through a game. This relaxation of effort is called “social Loafing”
19 TASK – Analyse a game you last played for the school, Identify the following: Situations when group cohesion facilitated good play.Circumstances when team play broke down due to the onset of faulty processesThe faulty processesHow could a coach prevent theRinglemann effect and Social loafingfrom occurring?