Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581 Next Previous A2 Module 4E.1 AQA Examinations A Level Sport and Physical Education A 6581 Module 4 part E Physiological,

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581 Next Previous A2 Module 4E.1 AQA Examinations A Level Sport and Physical Education A 6581 Module 4 part E Physiological,"— Presentation transcript:

1 AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581 Next Previous A2 Module 4E.1 AQA Examinations A Level Sport and Physical Education A 6581 Module 4 part E Physiological, Biomechanical and Psychological Factors which Optimise Performance

2 AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581 Next Previous A2 Module 4E.2 INDEX 26 - ATTITUDES IN SPORT 27 - FORMATION OF ATTITUDES 28 - COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDE - THE TRIADIC MODEL 29 - MEASUREMENT OF ATTITUDES BY OBSERVATION / USING PHYSIOLOGICAL TESTS QUESTIONNAIRES 30 - PREJUDICE AND SPORT STEREOTYPES NEGATIVE STEREOTYPES 31 - POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ATTITUDES TO SPORT 32 - ATTITUDE CHANGE BY PERSUASION AND COGNITIVE DISSONANCE 33 - AGGRESSION IN SPORT ASSERTION / CHANNELLED AGGRESSION HOSTILE AGGRESSION / INSTRUMENTAL AGGRESSION 34 - CAUSES OF AGGRESSION PHYSIOLOGICAL AROUSAL UNDERDEVELOPED MORAL REASONING BRACKETED MORALITY / SPECIFIC CAUSES 35 - THEORIES OF AGGRESSION INSTINCT / FRUSTRATION AGGRESSION THEORIES SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY AGGRESSIVE CUE HYPOTHESIS 36 - SPECTATOR AGGRESSION 37 - RESPONSIBILITY FOR AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR 38 - PREVENTION OF AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR GOVERNING BODY 39 - PREVENTION OF AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR COACHES / PLAYERS Index 3 - PERSONALITY 4 - THEORIES OF PERSONALITY - TRAIT TRAIT THEORIES - CATTELL - EYSENCK 5 - EYSENCK’S PERSONALITY TRAIT DIMENSIONS 6 - EVALUATION OF TRAIT THEORIES 7 - THEORIES OF PERSONALITY - SOCIAL LEARNING SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY - BANDURA VICARIOUS CONDITIONING 8 - THEORIES OF PERSONALITY - INTERACTIONIST - LEWIN 10 - MEASUREMENT OF PERSONALITY INTERVIEWS / QUESTIONNAIRES / OBSERVATION 11 - THE STRUCTURE OF CATTELL’S 16PF QUESTIONNAIRE 12 - PROFILE OF MOOD STATES (POMS) - MOODS 13 - SELF REPORT TESTS - PROBLEMS WITH THE TESTS 14 - MOTIVES AND MOTIVATORS - THEORIES 15 - INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION 16 - EXTRINSIC REWARDS AND INTRINSIC SOURCES 17 - MAJOR MOTIVES FOR YOUTH / ADULT SPORT PARTICIPATION 18 - THE EFFECTIVENESS OF EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION DISADVANTAGES / EXPLANATIONS / APPLICATION 19 - DEVELOPING AND ENHANCING MOTIVATION PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS / SITUATIONAL ASPECTS 20 - ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION NEED TO ACHIEVE (NACH) / NEED TO AVOID FAILURE (NAF) 21 - ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION - PERSONALITY COMPONENTS 22 - ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION - SITUATIONAL FACTORS 23 - MOTIVATION AND GOAL SETTING GOAL STRUCTURE - OUTCOME / TASK ORIENTATION 24 - MOTIVATION AND GOAL SETTING ENHANCING MOTIVATION 25 - ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION WHAT SHOULD THE COACH DO?

3 AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581 Next Previous A2 Module 4E.3 PERSONALITY Personality PERSONALITY unique characteristics of an individual knowledge about personality is important to ensure optimum sporting performance

4 AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581 Next Previous A2 Module 4E.4 THEORIES OF PERSONALITY- TRAIT TRAIT THEORIES general (covering all situations) underlying (inside of and part of the person) enduring (long lasting) predisposition (an inclination or motive formed earlier) CATTELL - EYSENCK’s hierarchical organisation of personality Personality

5 AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581 Next Previous A2 Module 4E.5 EYSENCK’S PERSONALITY TRAIT DIMENSIONS WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS A - B - C - D? Personality A stable extrovert talkative, outgoing, easy going, carefree, showing leader qualities B neurotic extrovert restless, aggressive, excitable, changeable C neurotic introvert anxious, sober, rigid, pessimistic D stable introvert careful, thoughtful, controlled, reliable, even tempered

6 AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581 Next Previous A2 Module 4E.6 EVALUATION OF TRAIT THEORIES THE TRAIT APPROACH is seen as being too simple and therefore produces a limited view of what personality actually is fails to recognise that people are actively involved in constructing their own personalities and fails to recognise the effects of environmental situations as predicted by social learning and interactionist theories TRAITS do not predict behaviour are seen as rigid (they are supposed to be enduring and fixed with time) the notion that traits are enduring is seen as too long-term - people think that personality factors can change with time subject to situations which occur which might change these factors Personality TRAIT THEORIES have a lack of sophistication have problems of validity - how do you confirm that the traits exist?

7 AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581 Next Previous A2 Module 4E.7 THEORIES OF PERSONALITY - SOCIAL LEARNING SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY explains behaviour in terms of the reaction to specific situations we learn to deal with situations by observing others or by observing the results of our own behaviour on others and by modelling our own behaviour on what we have seen –athletes learn behaviour by watching others BANDURA behaviour is determined by the situation –social comparison –behaving the same way as the peer group social approval or disapproval determines our responses –behaviour is reinforced or penalised VICARIOUS CONDITIONING the learning of emotional responses through observational learning example : –learning to become angry after a valid referee decision has gone against him / her by watching other players do the same Personality SOCIALISATION sport has a socialising effect participation in sport establishes norms and values of our society

8 AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581 Next Previous A2 Module 4E.8 THEORIES OF PERSONALITY - INTERACTIONIST INTERACTIONIST THEORIES traits determine behaviour but can be modified by situations –traits –situations –behaviour LEWIN behaviour is a function of both the person (personality P) and the environment (E) B = f(P,E) Personality

9 AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581 Next Previous A2 Module 4E.9 THEORIES OF PERSONALITY - INTERACTIONIST Personality EXAMPLE OF INTERACTIONIST THEORY APPROACH a young field event athlete shows promise, but worries about competing in important competitions and underperforms in these situations her coach works with her on anxiety management strategies and in her next competition she achieves a personal best the innate (trait) factors of the athlete’s personality cannot be changed by a coach so the coach must therefore get her to view her anxiety (which could be a trait which emerges whenever undue stress is placed on her) in terms of the specific situation of the next competition the anxiety could be channelled into positive images of her technical model rejecting poor efforts as due to external factors (the the weather / wind) and building on positive images of successful technical elements achieved the athlete can then build success by this focusing on factors other than her own anxiety this enables her to adjust her behaviour according to internal factors such as rhythm and fluency this strategy should enable the athlete to remove the stress from the situation and hence reduce anxiety - even if she competes poorly

10 AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581 Next Previous A2 Module 4E.10 MEASUREMENT OF PERSONALITY INTERVIEWS before or after the event not directly related to performance open ended and flexible transient feelings or attitudes may be expressed difficult to quantify accurately may be influenced by the interviewer Personality QUESTIONNAIRES before or after the event not directly related to performance rigidly and systematically set out transient feelings or attitudes may be expressed able to quantify accurately would not be influenced by another can be used to assess specific traits OBSERVATION made during an actual event directly related to performance varies according to the competitive nature of the event difficult to quantify accurately may be influenced by the observer’s views and attitudes

11 AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581 Next Previous A2 Module 4E.11 THE STRUCTURE OF CATTELL’S 16PF QUESTIONNAIRE Personality

12 AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581 Next Previous A2 Module 4E.12 PROFILE OF MOOD STATES (POMS) MOODS are an important aspect of personality which may influence sports performance tension depression anger vigour fatigue confusion unsuccessful sportspeople show high –tension –depression –fatigue –confusion low –vigour Personality elite sportspeople show low –tension –depression –confusion high –vigour

13 AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581 Next Previous A2 Module 4E.13 SELF REPORT TESTS PROBLEMS WITH THE TESTS lack of accuracy participant honesty the desire to create a favourable impression and therefore give answers which is what the questioner wants, not what the subject feels lack of objectivity neurotics emphasise certain traits ambiguous questions Personality THE ANSWERS CAN BE INFLUENCED BY : personality of the tester time of day / month previous experience of a test by a subject a participant’s mood swings the fact that personality is too complex to be viewed in response to yes or no answers

14 AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581 Next Previous A2 Module 4E.14 MOTIVES AND MOTIVATORS MOTIVATORS the reasons why sportspeople think and behave as they do THEORIES Motivation

15 AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581 Next Previous A2 Module 4E.15 INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION Motivation INTRINSIC MOTIVATION

16 AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581 Next Previous A2 Module 4E.16 EXTRINSIC REWARDS AND INTRINSIC SOURCES EXTRINSIC REWARDS INTRINSIC SOURCES Motivation

17 AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581 Next Previous A2 Module 4E.17 MAJOR MOTIVES FOR YOUTH SPORT PARTICIPATION fun being with friends thrills excitement success developing fitness improving skills being good at it FOR ADULT SPORT PARTICIPATION health factors weight loss fitness self-challenge feeling better Motivation

18 AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581 Next Previous A2 Module 4E.18 THE EFFECTIVENESS OF EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION DISADVANTAGES adding extrinsic reward to a situation which already provided intrinsic motivation decreases the intrinsic motivation eventually replacing it so when rewards are no longer available interest in the situation (sports activity) reduces EXPLANATIONS the reward acts as a distraction to the sports person’s intrinsic desire to work at his / her own pace rewards may turn play into work relationships with the person giving rewards might change the nature of the activity changes people like to determine their own behaviour rewards may make them feel that someone else is in charge APPLICATION OF EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION to attract youngsters to an activity to revive flagging motivation to help a sportsperson over a bad period in training to provide information about levels of achievement and competence Motivation

19 AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581 Next Previous A2 Module 4E.19 DEVELOPING AND ENHANCING MOTIVATION MOTIVATION IS A COMBINATION OF personal characteristics situational aspects MOTIVATION IS HIGHEST WHEN the performer is keen to participate the performer is keen to learn the performer is keen to perform the performer is keen to perform effectively when the motivational climate is right when the training programme is interesting and varied MOTIVATION IS REDUCED BY routine competition between motives PEOPLE have multiple motives share motives have unique motivational profiles need variation in training and competition need variation in intensity and competitiveness need structured coaching and teaching environments MOTIVES CHANGE OVER TIME TEACHERS AND COACHES ARE IMPORTANT MOTIVATORS Motivation

20 AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581 Next Previous A2 Module 4E.20 ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION the drive to achieve success for its own sake related to –competitiveness –persistence –striving for perfection influenced by –personality factors need to achieve need to avoid failure –situational factors probability of success incentive value of success NEED TO ACHIEVE (NACH) Tendency to approach success (Ts) this personality type likes a challenge likes feedback is not afraid of failure has high task persistence NEED TO AVOID FAILURE (NAF) Tendency to avoid failure (Taf) this personality type avoids challenges does not take risks often gives up does not want feedback (Atkinson and McClelland) Motivation

21 AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581 Next Previous A2 Module 4E.21 ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION - PERSONALITY COMPONENTS A = someone with a high need to achieve will probably have a low need to avoid failure will choose difficult or demanding tasks which are more risky the hard route up a rock face Motivation B = someone with a high need to avoid failure will probably have a low need to achieve will choose tasks which are less risky and more easily achieved the easy route up the rock face

22 AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581 Next Previous A2 Module 4E.22 ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION - SITUATIONAL FACTORS A = probability of success low (competing against the world champion) therefore strive very hard to win (incentive high) (will be highly chuffed if win) Motivation B = probability of success high (competing in local club match) therefore don’t need to try as hard to win (incentive low) (and expect to win easily) (not so pleasing)

23 AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581 Next Previous A2 Module 4E.23 MOTIVATION AND GOAL SETTING GOAL STRUCTURE easily attained initially progressively more difficult training goals should be planned around overall goals short-term / medium-term / long-term goal setting as a means of managing anxiety / stress goal setting to increase motivation GOALS ARE EITHER OUTCOME ORIENTED towards the end result of the sporting activity example : to win a race TASK ORIENTED performance oriented –judged against other performances –example : to beat best time process oriented –improvement in techniques Achievement Motivation

24 AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581 Next Previous A2 Module 4E.24 MOTIVATION AND GOAL SETTING TO ENHANCE MOTIVATION, GOALS SHOULD BE stated positively specific to the situation and the performer time phased challenging achievable - achievement would enhance self- efficacy at the sporting task measurable negotiated between sportsperson and coach progressive, from short-term to long-term performance / task oriented rather than outcome oriented written down reviewed regularly (with downward adjustment if necessary - in the case of injury) Achievement Motivation

25 AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581 Next Previous A2 Module 4E.25 ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION WHAT SHOULD THE COACH DO? IMPROVE NEED AND MOTIVE TO ACHIEVE (Nach) increase positive reinforcement hence increasing pride and satisfaction ensure that goals are achievable ensure that at least some situations guarantee success and subsequently gradually increase task difficulty in line with progress ensure that tasks are challenging ensure that the probability of success is good ensure that the incentive value of the success is high (is the race worth winning?) REDUCE TENDENCY AND MOTIVE TO AVOID FAILURE (NaF) reduce punishment hence lowering the chance of performer worrying about failure focus negative feedback on effort rather than ability this avoids the performer tending to believe that causes of failure are internal (due to lack of ability for example) and reduces the risk of learned helplessness (see next slide) avoid situations where defeat / failure is inevitable (such as performing against a much superior opponent) if this is not possible alter the criteria for success (you will have succeeded if you only lose by 2 goals) Motivation

26 AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581 Next Previous A2 Module 4E.26 ATTITUDES IN SPORT ATTITUDES a combination of beliefs and feelings about : –objects –people –situations –(called attitude objects) this predisposes us to behave in a certain way towards them learned or organised through experience evaluative they lead us to think and behave positively or negatively about an attitude object tend to be deep seated and enduring but can change or be changed Attitudes

27 AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581 Next Previous A2 Module 4E.27 FORMATION OF ATTITUDES Attitudes

28 AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581 Next Previous A2 Module 4E.28 COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDE - THE TRIADIC MODEL Attitudes

29 AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581 Next Previous A2 Module 4E.29 MEASUREMENT OF ATTITUDES BY OBSERVATION related to actual events as they are happening difficult to quantify or measure open to interpretation by observer USING PHYSIOLOGICAL TESTS indicators such as –blood pressure –skin conductivity –brain activity (ECG) can be interpreted to indicate telling the truth –about an attitude object measurable independent of observer but takes a long time to set up requiring special apparatus QUESTIONNAIRES only as good as the questions asked measurable using –Thurstone scale –Likert scale –Osgood’s Semantic Differential Scale Attitudes

30 AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581 Next Previous A2 Module 4E.30 PREJUDICE AND SPORT STEREOTYPES NEGATIVE STEREOTYPES women in strength, endurance and contact sports participation of the disabled in physical activity older age groups interest and ability at sport participation of particular ethnic groups in specific sports or positions within teams examples : –the black quarterback in American Football –the black sprinter –the white skier / swimmer Attitudes PREJUDICE a prejudgement of a person, group, or situation usually based on inadequate information or inaccurate or biased information which reinforces stereotypes example : –women are often excluded from male dominated sports clubs or events

31 AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581 Next Previous A2 Module 4E.31 POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ATTITUDES TO SPORT POSITIVE ATTITUDES has a positive physical self-concept satisfaction from participation in sport believe sport promotes health success at sport willing to try new activities encouraged by significant others participates regularly opportunity to participate Attitudes NEGATIVE ATTITUDES had negative experiences at sport have lifestyle which makes regular sport difficult find sport frustrating lack encouragement unlikely to participate in sport have a negative self concept find sport boring

32 AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581 Next Previous A2 Module 4E.32 ATTITUDE CHANGE BY PERSUASION AND COGNITIVE DISSONANCE PERSUASIVE COMMUNICATION the person must –pay attention –understand –accept –retain –the message being given the coach must –be expert –be trustworthy the message must –be clear –be unambiguous –be balanced between emotion and logic –be balanced between pros and cons COGNITIVE DISSONANCE the person must –be consistent between cognitive affective behavioural components the person must be consistent between different elements cognitive dissonance occurs hence attitudes must change –if two factual elements of attitude conflict –example : the smoker who knows that smoking is bad for health Attitudes

33 AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581 Next Previous A2 Module 4E.33 AGGRESSION IN SPORT ASSERTION sometimes called CHANNELLED AGGRESSION no intent to harm legitimate force within the rules unusual effort unusual energy HOSTILE AGGRESSION intent to harm goal is to harm arousal and anger involved INSTRUMENTAL AGGRESSION intent to harm goal to win used as a tactic ‘dirty play’ no anger illegal in all sports except boxing Aggression

34 AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581 Next Previous A2 Module 4E.34 CAUSES OF AGGRESSION PHYSIOLOGICAL AROUSAL anger towards another person causing an increase in arousal highly motivated UNDERDEVELOPED MORAL REASONING players with low levels of moral reasoning more likely to be aggressive BRACKETED MORALITY double standard condoning aggressive behaviour may retard players’ moral development ‘aggression is wrong in life, but OK in sport’ SPECIFIC CAUSES high environmental temperature home or away embarrassment losing pain unfair officiating playing below capability large score difference low league standing later stage of play (near the end of a game) reputation of opposition (get your retaliation in first) Aggression

35 AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581 Next Previous A2 Module 4E.35 THEORIES OF AGGRESSION INSTINCT THEORY aggression is innate and instinctive caused by survival of the species sport releases built up aggression, catharsis Lorentz FRUSTRATION AGGRESSION THEORY aggression caused by frustration the person being blocked in the achievement of a goal this causes a drive towards the source of frustration Dollard SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY aggression is learned by observation of other’s behaviour then imitation of this aggressive behaviour this is then reinforced by social acceptance of the behaviour Bandura AGGRESSIVE CUE HYPOTHESIS frustration causes anger and arousal this creates a readiness for aggression which can be initiated by an incident during the performance (the cue) this is a learned response example : a player sees a colleague fouled then decides to join in Berkowitz Aggression

36 AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581 Next Previous A2 Module 4E.36 SPECTATOR AGGRESSION Aggression SPECTATOR AGGRESSION caused by player aggression poor or biased officials alcohol racial or national abuse adult male crowd SUPPORTERS can help prevent aggression by avoid showing aggression avoid advocating aggression

37 AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581 Next Previous A2 Module 4E.37 RESPONSIBILITY FOR AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR Aggression

38 AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581 Next Previous A2 Module 4E.38 PREVENTION OF AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR GOVERNING BODY code of conduct –coaches –players –officials use of strong officials use of rules of games –punishment (remove league points) –sin bins –reward non-aggressive acts (FIFA fair play award) use of language –reduce media sensationalism coach education programme Aggression

39 AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581 Next Previous A2 Module 4E.39 PREVENTION OF AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR Aggression COACHES / PLAYERS promote ethical behaviour stress that each individual has a responsibility for reducing aggression promote sporting behaviour use role models with none aggressive methods control aggressive behaviour stress management strategies / relaxation techniques self control strategies reduce levels of arousal maintain a healthy will to win without winning being everything set task / performance goals rather than outcome goals remove players from field if at risk of aggression enable channelling of aggression towards a performance goal use peer pressure ‘avoid letting the side down’ stress group responsibility for eliminating aggression


Download ppt "AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581 Next Previous A2 Module 4E.1 AQA Examinations A Level Sport and Physical Education A 6581 Module 4 part E Physiological,"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google