2 History of Sport Psych Chinese and Greek Civilizations 1800s -“Healthy mind in a healthy body1800s-First sport psychology research-Effects of audience on cyclist performancePast Three Decades-Recognition and growth of sport psychology discipline
3 Growth of Sport Psychology Sport psychology has only recently developed and grown due to:1. Expansion of scientific knowledge and emergence of different branches2. Increased media attention
4 OutlineIn this section you will be introduced to the following sport psychology issues:-Influence of personality on performance- Effect of sport on personality- Relationship between anxiety and performance- Effect of motivation on sport performance- Effects of the audience on athletic accomplishments
6 Personality:Pattern of characteristic thoughts, feelings and behaviours that distinguish one person from another and persist over time and situations.
7 The study of personality in sport psychology can help us answer the following questions: *Do athletes possess different personality characteristics than non-athletes?*Do winners possess different personality profiles than losers?*Does personality determine sport preference, or does a particular sport mould our personality accordingly?*Can personality be changed, or does it remain relatively fixed throughout involvement in sport?
9 Personalities of Athletes vs. Non- Athletes Compared to non-athletes, athletes are more:StableExtrovertedCompetitiveDominantSelf-confidentAchievement orientedPsychologically well adjustedConservative with respect to political viewsAuthoritarianPersistantDisplay higher levels of self esteem
10 Personalities of Athletes vs. Non- Athletes Although differences exist, clear pattern of differences has yet to emerge
11 Personality Profiles of Athletes Differing in Skill Level
12 DefinitionsPersonality traits: psychological characteristics of the athlete which remain relatively stable over timePersonality states: “right now kinds of feelings” which are situation-specificState-trait controversy: disagreement of the relative merits of studying states versus traitsInteractional theory: the best state-trait approach, which considers personality traits and states, as well
13 It is NOT yet possible to distinguish between successful and unsuccessful athletes using personality traitsHowever, it is possible to distinguish between the elite athletes and the lesser skilled in terms of mood states
14 Mood States of Elite vs. Non-Elite Athletes Mood states of elite athletes vs lesser skilled athletes are below in:TensionDepressionFatigueAngerConfusionAND ARE MARKEDLY HIGHER INVIGOR
15 Iceberg ProfileThis mood state profile resembles an iceberg and is therefore often referred to as the iceberg profile
17 Are personality differences due to the athletic experience Are personality differences due to the athletic experience? OR Do certain personality traits cause the individual to go out for sports ( gravitational hypothesis)? *Evidence tends to support the gravitational hypothesis *HOWEVER, participation in sports can also enhance personality development
18 Personality and the Athlete: Conclusions Athletes tend to be more extroverted, independent and self-confident than non-athletes: they also tend to be less anxiousElite athletes can be distinguished from lesser skilled athlete by means of the iceberg profile: it is not possible, however, to distinguish between winners and losersIndividuals with certain personality traits tend to gravitate toward sports;sport also has the potential to enhance certain personality traits
20 Arousal Physiological state of readiness and psychological activation Involves the autonomic nervous systemBody’s way of preparing you for “fight or flight”
21 Stress Non-specific response of the body to any demand made upon it Unemotional bodily response to some type of stressorCan be either good or bad, depending upon the individual’s personal interpretationEustress ie winning the lotteryDistress ie receiving a failing grade on a midterm test
22 Anxiety Tension and worry that results from distress A negatively charged emotional state characterized by discomfort and nervousnessTwo forms of anxiety:Trait anxiety: a personality characteristicState anxiety: a “right now” kind of anxiety
23 Anxiety Cont’d Two components of state anxiety: 1. Cognitive state anxiety (psychological component)Caused by fear of failureResult of worrying“I am afraid I am going to lose”Somatic state anxiety (physical component)*perception of physiological responses*’I feel nervous before a major contest”
25 Pre-Competitive Anxiety Temporal changes in cognitive and somatic state anxiety as competition approaches
26 The Effect of Pre-competitive Anxiety on Performance Relationship between somatic anxiety and performance takes the for of an inverted-USee graph in TextRelationship between cognitive anxiety and athletic performance has been shown to be linear and negative.
27 ImplicationsIncreases in somatic anxiety are associated with improved athletic performance up to a certain optimal level; therefore, athletes should attempt to increase their somatic anxiety up to an optimal level by “psyching –up” or “getting pumped up”The level the of cognitive state anxiety, the better the athlete will perform; therefore, athletes must learn to deal with the symptoms of cognitive anxiety.
28 What are some symptoms of Cognitive State Anxiety? Use your text.Provide several examples
29 Relaxation Interventions to lower CS Anxiety Progressive Muscular Relaxation (PMR)Takes time initially, but with practice can be completed in minutesHigh Value the night before.Dave Heinbuch
30 Relax InterventionsPositive Imagery.Needs practice
31 More Relax Interventions Positive Self TalkReassuring one’s selfGive some examples.