Presentation on theme: "ATTITUDES. By the end of this session you will - Be able to explain what attitudes are and understand their origins Understand how to change attitudes."— Presentation transcript:
By the end of this session you will - Be able to explain what attitudes are and understand their origins Understand how to change attitudes Be aware of how attitudes can influence behaviour
Why study Attitudes? Psychologists are interested in how attitudes can affect behaviour in sport Attitudes can have a Positive/Negative influence on participation
Attitudes cont Attitudes are a part of a person’s personality, but not necessarily seen as a particular ‘trait’ Attitudes are usually directed to a particular situation
Task 1. Write down your own definition of an attitude?
Definition: “A combination of beliefs and feelings” about : - OBJECTS - PEOPLE } All of which lead us to behave in certain Ways - SITUATIONS
Do you think that: NoYes Cricket is a boring game The playing of national anthems at major events should be banned Boxing should be banned Women should be allowed to play contact sports such as rugby Old age pensioners should be allowed to go sky diving Crown green bowls is only suitable for? the elderly
Examine your own attitudes towards your favourite sport Why do you believe it is a worthwhile activity? Why do you prefer this sport to others? What are the major influences that caused you to develop your particular attitudes to this sport?
.9 FORMATION OF ATTITUDES
Consider your attitudes to the following situations “Athletes taking drugs to improve their performance” “Dodgeball to be included as a sport in the 2012 Olympic games” “BskyB monopolysing broadcast rights for all major sports”
Attitudes – formed through influences from: BELIEFS = formed through past experiences and what we have learned from others, parents, friends etc. EMOTIONS = depends on past experiences such as satisfaction, enjoyment, fear etc.
Triadic model This definition has three elements BELIEFS (cognitive) EMOTIONS (affective) BEHAVIOURAL (behaviour)
.13 Attitude to “regular exercise”
.14 PREJUDICE AND SPORT STEREOTYPES NEGATIVE STEREOTYPES women in strength, endurance and contact sports participation of the disabled in physical activity older age groups interest and ability at sport PREJUDICE a prejudgement of a person, group, or situation usually based on inadequate information or inaccurate or biased information which reinforces stereotypes example : women are often excluded from male dominated sports clubs or events
.15 POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ATTITUDES TO SPORT POSITIVE ATTITUDES has a positive physical self- concept satisfaction from participation in sport believe sport promotes health success at sport willing to try new activities encouraged by significant others participates regularly opportunity to participate NEGATIVE ATTITUDES had negative experiences at sport have lifestyle which makes regular sport difficult find sport frustrating lack encouragement unlikely to participate in sport have a negative self concept find sport boring
.16 CHANGING ATTITUDES PERSUASIVE COMMUNICATION the person must –pay attention –understand –accept –retain the message being given the coach must –be expert –be trustworthy the message must –be clear –be balanced between emotion and logic –be balanced between pros and cons
CHANGING ATTITUDES COGNITIVE DISSONANCE According to Festinger an individual knows certain things (cognitions) about their own attitudes, beliefs and thoughts in relation to their own behaviour and surroundings. These cognitions will create a good feeling (feeling of consonance) or they can be inconsistent, creating a state of dissonance. Festinger suggests that if a person experiences feelings of dissonance then they are generally motivated to change their beliefs, attitudes or thoughts in order to a feeling of consonance. Therefore the aim is to create a conflict of information that the individual has to consider, assess and form a new judgement. cognitive dissonance occurs hence attitudes must change if two factual elements of attitude conflict example : the smoker who knows that smoking is bad for health
Using the theories outlined, discuss how you would alter the negative attitudes in the following scenarios. Use practical examples to support your answers 1.A group of teenage girls think exercise is too hard and boring. 2.A group of teenage boys only want to play matches when they attend training sessions rather than work on developing their skills 3.A group of middle-aged office workers dont take part in exercise because they claim they dont have the time, money or opportunities to participate in the local area
.19 Attitude to “regular exercise” CAN YOU DRAW UP TWO DIFFERENT CHANGES TO ATTITUDE USING THE TRIADIC MODEL?
.20 MEASUREMENT OF ATTITUDES USING PHYSIOLOGICAL TESTS indicators such as –blood pressure –skin conductivity –brain activity (ECG) measurable independent of observer but takes a long time to set up requiring special apparatus BY OBSERVATION related to actual events as they are happening difficult to quantify or measure open to interpretation by observer BY QUESTIONNAIRES only as good as the questions asked measurable using –Thurstone scale –Likert scale –Osgood’s Semantic Differential Scale
HOMEWORK How might similar attitudes to your peers help develop participation in sport? (2mks) How might it affect participation if your peers have conflicting attitudes to yourself? (2mks) What is Cognitive dissonance? (2mks) By giving practical examples, discuss how cognitive dissonance theory could change a negative attitude towards exercise? (6mks) What are the four elements to Persuasive Communication theory (define them)? (4mks) Describe a practical situation in physical education when persuasive communication theory could be used to change an attitude. (4mks)