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F4 Health and Nutrition Obesity and Diabetes

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1 F4 Health and Nutrition Obesity and Diabetes
Childhood obesity has more than tripled in the past 30 years. Today, in the United States, 17.3% of children ages 6-19 are obese. If this number does not sound high, compare it to 1980, when only a little over 6% of US children were considered obese. Type II diabetes was once called “adult onset diabetes” because it was rarely found in children. In the early 90s, pediatricians reported only 2% to 4% of their diabetic patients had Type II. Today, the reported cases of children with Type II have increased tenfold. Obesity in youth can have both immediate and long term effects on health. The risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as high blood pressure and high cholesterol as well as bone and joint problems go up significantly. Obesity is associated with a number of other serious diseases including heart disease and type II Diabetes. Type II diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. It is a disease in which the body either does not produce enough insulin or the cells ignore the insulin. Glucose is the basic form of energy for your cells. Insulin is a hormone that delivers glucose to the cells. If a body does not produce enough insulin or the cells ignore the insulin, glucose builds up in the blood stream. In Type 2 diabetes, the body does not respond properly to insulin.

2 Crash Course in Nutrition Complex Carbohydrates
F4 Crash Course in Nutrition Carbohydrates Primarily provide the body with a source of fuel and energy required to carry out daily activities and exercise. Simple Carbohydrates Complex Carbohydrates All carbohydrates are broken down into glucose (sugar) for the body’s energy. Extra glucose is stored in the liver or muscles until it is needed. Unused glucose gets stored as fat. Simple Carbohydrates are quickly broken down into glucose to be used as energy and are found naturally in foods such as fruits, milk, and milk products. They are also found in processed and refined sugars such as candy, table sugar, syrups, white bread, and soda, which provide energy, but lack vitamins, minerals, and fiber. Complex Carbohydrates take much longer to break down and supply the body with a steady source of energy. Examples of complex carbohydrates are whole grains, oatmeal, and brown rice. Over half of your diet should be carbohydrates and a large part of that should be complex carbohydrates.

3 Crash Course in Nutrition
F4 Crash Course in Nutrition Proteins The most important function of protein is to build, maintain, and replace the tissues in your body. Complete Proteins Incomplete Protein Proteins are made of little building blocks called amino acids. There are 20 types of amino acids and while your body can make many of them itself, there are 8 “essential” amino acids the body cannot produce on its own, and must get from food. Complete Proteins are food sources that provide all eight essential amino acids. Animal-based foods like meat, poultry, fish, milk, eggs, and cheese are complete protein sources. Incomplete Proteins are sources that are missing one or more of the essential amino acids, such as beans, peas, seeds, nuts, grains, tofu, and some vegetables. Incomplete proteins can be combined to form complete proteins. Examples include corn and beans, rice and beans, or peanut butter and whole wheat bread.

4 F4 Fats Fats are important for brain development and storing the body’s extra calories Unsaturated Fats are the fats that are good for brain development and good for your heart. Saturated Fats and Trans Fat are the main dietary cause of high cholesterol and contributes to other heart problems. Trans fat is a type of saturated fat, found mostly in processed foods.

5 F4 Vitamins and Minerals Vitamin D Vitamin E Calcium Vitamin A
Vitamin B12 Vitamin C Unlike protein, carbohydrates and fats, vitamins and minerals do not provide energy, but are needed to make the body function properly Vitamin D Builds bones by helping body absorb calcium. Sources This vitamin is unique - your body manufactures it from sunlight. Vitamin E Protects cells from damage. Sources Vegetable oils, nuts, green leafy vegetables, avocados, wheat germ and whole grains. Calcium Builds strong bones and teeth. Sources Milk, dairy products, broccoli, dark green vegetables, soy foods Vitamin A Keeps vision, skin, and immune system healthy. Sources Milk, eggs, liver, fortified cereals, orange or dark green vegetables like carrots, sweet potatoes, pumpkin, and kale and orange fruits like cantaloupe, apricots, peaches, and mangos. Vitamin B12 Helps to make red blood cells. Sources Fish, red meat, poultry, milk, cheese, eggs and some breakfast cereals. Vitamin C Healthy bones, heals wounds, essential for brain function. Sources Red berries, kiwi, red and green bell peppers, tomatoes, broccoli, spinach, grapefruits and oranges.

6 Vitamins and Minerals (cont.)
F4 Vitamins and Minerals (cont.) Iron Niacin (vitamin B3) Potassium Zinc Iron Helps red blood cells carry oxygen all over the body. Sources Red meat, pork, fish and shellfish, poultry, lentils, beans, soy foods, green leafy vegetables and raisins. Niacin (vitamin B3) Helps body turn food into energy, healthy skin, nerve function. Sources Red meat, poultry, fish, fortified hot and cold cereals and peanuts. Potassium Helps with muscle function and maintains balance of water in the body. Sources Broccoli, potatoes (with skins), green leafy vegetables, citrus fruits, bananas, dried fruits and legumes such as peas and lima beans. Zinc Important for normal growth and a strong immune system. Sources Red meat, poultry, oysters and other seafood, nuts, dried beans, soy foods, milk, dairy products, whole grains and fortified breakfast cereals.

7 F5 School Food During the Great Depression of the1930s, unemployment was high, farmers could not sell their crops (prices were too low), and American children were undernourished. As a solution to these issues, the government created a school lunch system. Children were fed healthy meals Unemployed women got jobs as lunch cooks The government purchased farm crops to be used in preparing school food, supporting US farmers American schools have not always had cafeterias. In the late 1800s and early 1900s, schools were small and usually near student’s houses, so everyone went home for lunch, or students traveling to school from farther away would bring pails of food for lunch. When World War I began, many of the farm crops used to prepare food for schools went to supply US military troops in Europe. In hopes of avoiding a food crisis, the US government created the United States School Garden Army (USSGA) in 1917, as a way of encouraging schools to garden during the war. The food for schools usually came from nearby farms and women would even spend the summer months canning fruits and vegetables for use during the school year. There was no money for cafeteria-sized kitchens or cooking equipment, so the food was either prepared in people’s houses and brought to the school or cooked in a tiny kitchen at the school.

8 What are the issues with the way schools produce food now?
School cafeterias create a lot of waste Packaging waste: Food waste Industrial agriculture makes school lunch Fossil fuels Student Health Issues Currently, there are approximately 55 million students in from kindergarten to twelfth grade in the United States, so school food issues have a huge impact on a lot of people Packaging waste: Many cafeterias serve meals on Styrofoam™ or plastic disposable trays. Many food items are individually wrapped and the forks and spoons are plastic. Food Waste: All students are given the same kind of food- whether they want it or not. As a result, students do not always eat what is served Both packaging and food waste can also apply to lunch brought from home, and certainly apply to food purchased from fast food restaurants. Fossil Fuels: Chances are your school food is not made anywhere near your school, maybe not even in your state! Childhood obesity and Type II diabetes are two major health problems facing children and teens today. Menus in most school lunch programs are too high in saturated fat and cholesterol and too low in fiber- and nutrient-rich fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and legumes.

9 The Dirt on Soil: A Few Facts
Soil: Back to Basics The Dirt on Soil: A Few Facts Soil has three separate layers: The top layer contains minerals and humus, the decayed remains of animals and plants. Humus and minerals are needed by plants for good growth The second layer contains smaller humus and large amounts of minerals The third layer consists of weathered rock fragments that are being broken down Soils provide the water and minerals that a plant needs. Without soil, the plant can be watered, but it becomes difficult to give the plant the nutrients that it gains from the soil. Soil is made from the weathering of bedrock and the slow decomposition of dead plants and animal matter, a combination of living (organic) and non-living (inorganic) material. It can take from 100 to 500 years for one inch of topsoil to form. Weathering is the decomposing of rocks, soils and their minerals through direct contact with the air. The materials left over after the rock breaks down make up the inorganic part of the soil. Plants, invertebrates, microorganisms, decaying matter make up the organic part of the soil. Decomposition is the breaking down of dead plants and animals and their waste. Detritivores, (i.e. earthworms, pillbugs and millipedes) as well as bacteria, and other microbes living in the soil, aid in this process.

10 F6 The Composite Recipe To make compost you need four things:
Air Water Nitrogen (greens) Carbon (browns) Browns are dead Greens are fresh Putting more browns than greens Do not put bones, fats, oils, cheese, meat, or milk products Compost piles should be moist but not soggy. Decomposition helps to provide a healthy environment for plant growth. It is also an excellent way to recycle food scraps and save space in landfills. Because microorganisms do most of the work in a compost pile, they need the right amounts of plant material and food scraps to eat. Nitrogen and carbon are what they eat. They need air and water to live and work. Browns are dead, dried plant parts like leaves and pine needles. Browns are high in carbon. Dried leaves, dried pine needles, newspaper and sawdust are a few examples of browns. Greens are fresh, living parts that do not feel dry. Fresh grass clippings, kitchen vegetable scraps, coffee grounds, and other plants are good examples. Greens are high in nitrogen. Putting more browns than greens in the pile will prevent compost from smelling and will speed up the rate of decomposition. Compost piles should be moist but not soggy. Sometimes they must be watered. There should be plenty of room for airflow in the pile.

11 Building a New Food System
“A sustainable agriculture does not deplete soils or people.” -Wendell Berry

12 Sustainable Agriculture
F7 Sustainable Agriculture Sustainable agriculture is the opposite of industrial agriculture in nearly every way. It aims to make the food system smaller by reducing the amount of resources consumed and replacing what it uses. Protecting and renewing the soil Integrating natural systems Polycultures Humane treatment of animals Depending on where and what is grown, the methods of sustainable agriculture can vary. A farm may use few or many techniques, but the general principles are the same: Protecting and renewing the soil: This is one of the most important aspects of sustainable farming because the soil is used year after year. It can involve practices such as the addition of organic materials back into soil (manure or compost), or growing wind breaks (tall rows of trees or bushes) to prevent soil erosion. Integrating natural systems: In order to make farming a sustainable practice, ecological principles are used. In other words, sustainable agriculture imitates the processes of nature. Polycultures: Growing different crops together to reduce pest and disease problems. Some plants have beneficial effects on each other and are planted together. Humane treatment of animals: Animals are well cared for, free of growth hormones and antibiotics and raised in their natural living environments, not pent up.

13 F7 Get it Locally The closer your food is grown to where you live, the easier it is to know how it was grown. Local food is available in several ways: Community Gardens Farmers Markets Grow your own Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) A community garden is a piece of land gardened by a group of people. Community gardens are found in urban areas, where neighborhoods have limited green spaces, as well as in smaller towns and suburbs. Abandoned lots are often the spaces on which the gardens are planted, transforming an unused space into a green community resource. Many of the small farmers whosell at markets use sustainable and organic growing practices. Because of industrial agriculture, the numbers of small farmers have declined in the past twenty years. The farmers market is a great way to find out how your food is grown and meet the people that grow it. Grow your own: If you have a backyard or even a small patch of soil, you can plant something. A CSA is a relationship between a farm and a community in which the farmer offers “shares” of the farm to a group of people in a community. Each person pays a membership fee to the farm each year. These fees provide the farmer with money to buy seeds and other inputs for the farm, and in return each member receives a box of vegetables each week.

14 Food Awareness for a Healthy School
Healthy Students Even small changes in the way you eat can have big effects Eat a wide variety of foods Don’t be afraid to try new things. Make a game of it and try one new food each week Learn to cook Cooking at home is half the battle to healthy eating for you and the planet. It is fun and you know exactly how your food is made and what is in it

15 Food Awareness for a Healthy School
Grow some food Drink lots of water Bring your own snacks When you go to school or go places with friends or family, plan ahead and bring healthy snacks. Listen to your body Often, we keep eating if there is food in front of us, even if we are not hungry. If your body is telling you it is full, try to listen and stop eating. Pay attention to your food If we do other things while we are eating, we are not paying attention to what we are putting into our bodies. Do not eat while watching television, sitting at a computer, in a car or walking. Make time for your food. Drink water - This is an important part of any diet. Water flushes our bodies of waste and keeps us hydrated. Next time you go for a soda, drink water instead. If you eat out, do not order a large size of anything and if the portions are big, share a dish with someone. Try to eat your meals sitting down at a table. If possible, eat with family or friends. Sharing a meal is a way to enjoy your food as well as the people around you.

16 Share these ideas with everyone in your school!
F8 Get Moving Ride a bike or walk instead of taking buses or cars. Take stairs instead of elevators. Make sure you do physical activity every day. Get fit with friends and family Join in physical activities at school Balance Share these ideas with everyone in your school!

17 Some Ideas for school lunch:
Reduce Meat Consumption Start a “Meatless Monday” Zero Waste Lunch Reduce Meat Consumption: One way to reduce your carbon footprint and start changing the food system is to reduce the amount of meat you eat each week. Replace red meat, poultry and other meats with other forms of protein like soy products, peanut butter or legumes. You can also try new dishes that do not use meat. Meat production uses so many resources to (just one pound of conventional grain-fed beef uses a gallon of fuel and 5,169 gallons of water) Zero Waste Lunch: The average American student produces 67 pounds of lunch waste each year. The goal of zero waste lunch is to make lunch as waste free as possible. Whether students bring lunch from home or eat in the lunchroom, food and package waste can be reduced. Here are a few tips: If you bring your lunch: • Put drinks in a thermos or reusable bottle • Pack a reusable lunch bag instead of using paper or plastic • Pack all lunch items in reusable containers. • If you do bring disposable containers, be sure to recycle them • Bring silverware from home instead of using plastic If you get lunch from the lunchroom: • Talk to your school cafeteria staff about getting reusable napkins, trays and silverware • Try to make sure napkin dispensers are on tables and not on the lunch line. This way, students take only what they need. • Make sure your school has an active recycling program so that disposable containers are recycled.

18 F10 Subsistence Farming The difficulties with subsistence farming are numerous because the family depends on the farm for survival. For example, if there is a severe drought and the crops are ruined, the family loses their food supply for the year as well as any money they might have made. People who produce all of the food they eat have a very different outlook on food than the average fast food customer. In subsistence farming, families grow crops primarily to feed themselves.

19 F10 Traditions in Food All over the world, people have vastly different approaches to their food – from what they grow and prepare to how they eat a meal. In some places, large groups of people eat from the same plate or bowl using only their hands while in other places, each bite of a meal comes on its own separate dish. In some countries, people eat snails while other nationalities would never even consider the idea. In trying to change our habits and improve the planet, it is important to reflect on how other people and cultures eat.

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