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© Copyright 2014 OPP Ltd. All rights reserved. Culture or personality? Individual differences in cultural orientation across countries John Hackston, OPP Ltd
© Copyright 2014 OPP Ltd. All rights reserved. Company confidential What is culture? A group’s culture is the set of unique characteristics that distinguishes its members from another group Philippe Rosinski Coaching Across Cultures The way we do things around here Culture: the shared beliefs and values of a group The collective programming of the mind distinguishing the members of one group or category of people from another How different groups solve universal human dilemmas
© Copyright 2014 OPP Ltd. All rights reserved. Company confidential CategoryDimensions Sense of Power and ResponsibilityControl - Harmony - Humility Time Management Approaches Scarce - Plentiful Monochronic - Polychronic Past - Present - Future Definitions of Identity and Purpose Being - Doing Individualistic - Collectivistic Organisational Arrangements Hierarchy - Equality Universalist - Particularist Stability - Change Competitive - Collaborative Cultural Orientations Framework
© Copyright 2014 OPP Ltd. All rights reserved. Company confidential Cultural Orientations Framework CategoryDimensions Notions of Territory and BoundariesProtective - Sharing Communication Patterns High-Context - Low-Context Direct - Indirect Affective - Neutral Formal - Informal Modes of Thinking Deductive - Inductive Analytical - Systemic
© Copyright 2014 OPP Ltd. All rights reserved. Company confidential Cultural Orientations Framework Orientations Abilities (What do you prefer) (What are you capable of)
© Copyright 2014 OPP Ltd. All rights reserved. Company confidential Research questions Do the COF dimensions fit the structure? How do the COF dimensions relate to personality? How does country of origin relate? And – what are the practical implications?
© Copyright 2014 OPP Ltd. All rights reserved. Company confidential The sample N=1,017 69% 31%
© Copyright 2014 OPP Ltd. All rights reserved. Company confidential Orientation and ability (1) OrientationAbilityR2R2 Control/Harmony/HumilityControlHarmonyHumility Scarce/PlentifulScarcePlentiful Monochronic/PolychronicMonochronicPolychronic Past/Present/FuturePastPresentFuture Being/DoingBeingDoing Individualistic/CollectivisticIndividualistCollectivistic Hierarchical/EqualityHierarchicalEquality Universalist/ParticularistUniversalistParticularist
© Copyright 2014 OPP Ltd. All rights reserved. Company confidential Orientation and ability (2) OrientationAbilityR2R2 Stability/ChangeStabilityChange Competitive/CollaborativeCompetitiveCollaborative Protective/SharingProtectiveSharing High Context/Low ContextHigh ContextLow Context Direct/IndirectDirectIndirect Affective/NeutralAffectiveNeutral Formal/InformalFormalInformal Deductive/InductiveDeductiveInductive Analytical/SystemicAnalyticalSystemic
© Copyright 2014 OPP Ltd. All rights reserved. Company confidential Highest and lowest agreement DimensionDescriptionR2R2 Stability Value a static and orderly environment. Encourage efficiency through systematic and disciplined work. Minimise change and ambiguity, perceived as disruptive 0.51 Change Value a dynamic and flexible environment. Promote effectiveness through adaptability, innovation. Avoid routine, perceived as boring. Protective Protect oneself by keeping personal life and feelings private and by minimising intrusions in one’s physical space 0.51 Sharing Build closer relationships by sharing one’s psychological and physical domains Deductive Emphasise concepts, theories and general principles. Then, through logical reasoning, derive practical applications and solutions 0.01 Inductive Start with experiences, concrete situations and cases. Then, using intuition, formulate general models and theories Direct In a conflict or with a tough message to deliver, get your point across clearly at the risk of offending or hurting 0.00 Indirect In a conflict or with a tough message to deliver, favour maintaining a cordial relationship, at the risk of misunderstanding
© Copyright 2014 OPP Ltd. All rights reserved. Company confidential Factor analysis of abilities Traditional Scarce, Past, Stability, Formal Open Collectivistic, (Protective-), Sharing, Affective, Informal Competitive Doing, Individualistic, Competitive Relaxed Harmony, Humility, Plentiful, Being Multi-tasking Polychronic, (Monochronic-), Change Direct (High Context-), Low Context, Direct, (Indirect-), Neutral Democratic (Hierarchical-), Equallity, Collaborative Intuitive (Present-), Future, Systemic Universalist Universalist, (Particularist-) Analytical Deductive, (Inductive-), Analytical Control Sense of power and responsibility Time management approaches
© Copyright 2014 OPP Ltd. All rights reserved. Company confidential Personality - MBTI Myers-Briggs Type Indicator®questionnaire (Myers et al, 1998). How do you deal with the world around you? JUDGINGPERCEIVING What process do you use to make decisions? THINKINGFEELING What kind of information do you prefer to use? SENSINGINTUITION Where do you get your energy from? EXTRAVERSIONINTROVERSION
© Copyright 2014 OPP Ltd. All rights reserved. Company confidential Factor scores and personality FactorDichotomiesWhole Type AnovaHighestLowest F1, TraditionalI S _ J0.000ISFJINTP F2, OpenE _ F P0.000ESFPISTP F3, CompetitiveE _ T _0.003ESTPISFP F4, Relaxed_ _ _ P0.005ISFPESTJ F5, Multi-taskingE N _ P0.000ENTPISFJ F6, Direct_ S T J0.000ESTJINFP F7, Democratic_ _ NS-- F8, Intuitive_ N _ _0.000INTPESTP F9, Universalist_ N T _0.002ISTJENFJ F10, Analytical_ _ T _0.002ISTJISFP F11, Control_ _ NS--
© Copyright 2014 OPP Ltd. All rights reserved. Company confidential Countries represented Total sample = 1,017
© Copyright 2014 OPP Ltd. All rights reserved. Company confidential Countries in this sample Australia (n=100) South Africa (n=96) India (n=180) USA (n=283) UK (n=129) France (n=32) Germany (n=40) Total = 860
© Copyright 2014 OPP Ltd. All rights reserved. Company confidential Factor scores and country FactorAnovaHighestLowest F1, Traditional0.020USAFrance, Germany F2, Open0.025USAFrance F3, CompetitiveNS-- F4, Relaxed0.030IndiaUSA F5, Multi-tasking0.001AustraliaGermany F6, DirectNS-- F7, DemocraticNS-- F8, IntuitiveNS-- F9, UniversalistNS-- F10, AnalyticalNS-- F11, ControlNS--
© Copyright 2014 OPP Ltd. All rights reserved. Company confidential Personality and country FactorTypeCountryInteraction F1, Traditional F2, Open0.000NS F3, CompetitiveNS F4, Relaxed NS F5, Multi-tasking NS F6, Direct0.000NS F7, DemocraticNS F8, Intuitive0.000NS F9, Universalist0.008NS F10, AnalyticalNS F11, ControlNS
© Copyright 2014 OPP Ltd. All rights reserved. Company confidential Factor 1 – Personality and origin ISTJISTJ ISFJISFJ INFJINFJ INTJINTJ ISTPISTP ISFPISFP INFPINFP INTPINTP ESTPESTP ESFPESFP ENFPENFP ENTPENTP ESTJESTJ ESFJESFJ ENFJENFJ ENTJENTJ Australia France Germany India South Africa UK USA
© Copyright 2014 OPP Ltd. All rights reserved. Company confidential Conclusions The factor structure of the COF dimensions does not map onto the model structure Personality relates to 9 of the 11 factors Country of origin relates to 4 of the 11 factors There is some evidence of interaction effects Both personality and culture will have an impact on people’s perception of their abilities and thus how they will behave
© Copyright 2014 OPP Ltd. All rights reserved. Company confidential Thank you! Any questions?
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