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© Copyright 2013 OPP Ltd. All rights reserved. What Maketh a Manager? Differences in culture and personality across four countries John Hackston, OPP Ltd.

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1 © Copyright 2013 OPP Ltd. All rights reserved. What Maketh a Manager? Differences in culture and personality across four countries John Hackston, OPP Ltd Gabrielle Walker, OPP Ltd

2 © Copyright 2013 OPP Ltd. All rights reserved Overview Distinction between personality type and culture Cross cultural teams differences and similarities Our research Sample Methodology Results and findings Implications for practitioners

3 © Copyright 2013 OPP Ltd. All rights reserved Culture and personality A fish only discovers its need for water when it is no longer in it. [Culture] sustains us. We live and breathe through it. Trompenaars Personality Culture

4 © Copyright 2013 OPP Ltd. All rights reserved Cross-cultural teams Previous research shows that culture varies across countries So, how does this affect the workplace? Impact on work place interactions Leadership differs across cultures (GLOBE) Individual personality will interact with cultural style

5 © Copyright 2013 OPP Ltd. All rights reserved Our research Executive level/Owner Employee Education Coaching ConsultingHR Learning and Development Employment Sector n= 710 MBTI practitioners 69% female 31% male Mean age= 44 years Range of seniority:

6 © Copyright 2013 OPP Ltd. All rights reserved Cultural Orientations Framework Measures a set of cultural orientations- an inclination to think, feel or act in a culturally determined way Rosinski, Categories and 17 dimensions: Sense of Power and Responsibility Time management Approaches Definitions of Identity and Purpose Organisational Arrangements Notions of Territory and Boundaries Communication Patterns Modes of thinking

7 © Copyright 2013 OPP Ltd. All rights reserved Personality Myers-Briggs Type Indicator®questionnaire (Myers et al, 1998). How do you deal with the world around you? JUDGINGPERCEIVING What process do you use to make decisions? THINKINGFEELING What kind of information do you prefer to use? SENSINGINTUITION Where do you get your energy from? EXTRAVERSIONINTROVERSION

8 © Copyright 2013 OPP Ltd. All rights reserved Hypotheses Those with an iNtuitive preference were more likely to be at more senior levels Some cultural orientations would show a consistent relationship with seniority; others country specific Personality would have a bigger effect than cultural orientation

9 © Copyright 2013 OPP Ltd. All rights reserved Sensing – iNtuition and job level (1)

10 © Copyright 2013 OPP Ltd. All rights reserved Sensing – iNtuition and job level (2)

11 © Copyright 2013 OPP Ltd. All rights reserved Overall COF differences by job level ControlHumility Monochronic Past Stability Polychronic Future Change AnalyticalSystemic

12 © Copyright 2013 OPP Ltd. All rights reserved Correlations and Fisher Z by country OrientationCorrelationsFisher Z AustraliaIndiaUKUSMeanSD Scarce/Plentiful Monochronic/Polychronic Individualistic/Collectivistic OrientationCorrelationsFisher Z AustraliaIndiaUKUSMeanSD Past/Present/Future Stability/Change Analytical/Systemic Commonalities Differences

13 © Copyright 2013 OPP Ltd. All rights reserved Scarce/Plentiful (Australia, UK, India) ScarcePlentiful Scarce India AustraliaPlentiful ScarcePlentifulUK

14 © Copyright 2013 OPP Ltd. All rights reserved Conclusions and implications Conclusions Previous research showing more people with an iNtuitive preference in senior roles was supported The hypothesis that personality would show a greater effect than cultural orientation on seniority was not supported There were communalities and differences between countries in how cultural orientation related to seniority Implications Recognising similarities and differences between managers of different cultures can help practitioners working internationally Understanding personality type can build a bridge between cultures Explore techniques for working with people from different cultures

15 © Copyright 2013 OPP Ltd. All rights reserved References Brodbeck, F.C., Frese, M., Akerblom, S., Audia, G., Bakacsi, G., Bendova, H., et al. (2000) Cultural Variation of Leadership Prototypes Across 22 European Countries. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology. 73, Hall, E.T. & Hall, M.R. (1990). Understanding Cultural Differences; Germans, French and Americans. Intercultural Press. Heine, S.J. & Buchtel, E.E. (2009). Personality: The Universal and the Culturally Specific. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, Hofstede, G.H., (1980) Culture's Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1980 Hofstede, G. (1993). Cultural constraints in management theories. The Executive, 7, 81–94. Hofstede, G., & Hofstede, G.J. (2004). Cultures and organisations: Software of the mind (2nd ed). New York: McGraw-Hill House, R.J., Hanges, P.J., Javidan, M., Dorfman, P.W. & Gupta, V. (eds). (2004). Culture, leadership and organisations: The GLOBE study of 62 societies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Inglehart, R., (1997) Modernization and Post-Modernization: Cultural, Economic, and Political Change in 43 Societies. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. Judge, T.A., Bono, J.E., Ilies, R., Gerhardt M.W. (2002). Personality and leadership: A qualitative and quantitative review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 765–780. Kluckhohn, Florence, & Strodtbeck, F. (1961). Variations in Value Orientations. Row, Peterson. Myers, I.B., McCaulley, M.H., Quenk, N.L. & Hammer, A.L. (1998). MBTI® manual: A guide to the development and use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® (3rd ed). Mountain View, CA: CPP, Inc. Rosinski, P. (2003). Coaching across Cultures. London; Nicholas Brealey Schwartz, S.H., (1999) A Theory of Cultural Values and Some Implications for Work. Applied Psychology, 48, Taras, V., Kirkman, B.L. and Steel, P. (2010). Examining the impact of Culture's consequences: A three-decade, multilevel, meta-analytic review of Hofstede's cultural value dimensions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95, Trompenaars, F., & Hampden-Turner, C. (1998). Riding the waves of culture: Understanding cultural diversity in global business (2nd ed.) New York: McGraw-Hill.

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