Presentation on theme: "An overview to effective techniques in EFL Teaching Caracas, May, 2012 Programa Nacional de Capacitación Idiomática IDIOMAS 1."— Presentation transcript:
An overview to effective techniques in EFL Teaching Caracas, May, 2012 Programa Nacional de Capacitación Idiomática IDIOMAS 1
2 Content The Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) Main tenets, types of activities, roles of learner, teacher and materials Classroom Management. The learner: importance, learning styles and teaching context. Student-centred techniques for developing the four language skills: reading, writing, listening and speaking.
3 SS comparing sets of pictures (differences and similarities). Sequence in a set of pictures. Discovering missing features in a map or picture. Giving instructions on how to draw a shape to a partner. Following directions Solving problems with clues Functional communication activities Conversations and discussion sessions. Dialogues and role plays. Simulations Improvisations Debates Social interaction activities (Littlewood,1981), Main types of activities in CLT
4 Learner roles according to Breen & Candlin (1980) Negotiator & Contributor L2. Source: Richards & Rodgers, 2002 Him/herself Learning process The group Activities, Classroom procedures
5 Teacher roles in CLT Breen & Candlin (1980) Source: Richards & Rodgers, 2002 Facilitates the communication process between all ss in the class Facilitates the communication process between the ss and the activities and texts. Main role Organizer of resources. Guide within the classroom procedures and activities. Researcher and learner Manager Counselor Needs analyst 2ndary Roles
1.Determine the learner language needs. 2. Respond to such language needs. As a needs analyst a teacher should… 6
7 Activities in CLT Appropriateness: formal and casual styles of speaking. The message is the main point. Psycholinguistic Process The learner takes risks. Freer practise is allowed. Source: Richards & Rodgers, 2002
8 Roles of Materials according to Breen & Candlin (1980) Instructional materials Text-based Task-based Realia Source: Richards & Rodgers, 2002
Communicative Language Teaching:CLT Learners learn a language through using it to communicate. Authentic and meaningful communication should be the goal of classroom activities. Fluency is an important dimension of communication. Communication involves the integration of different language skills. Learning is a process of creative construction and involves trial and error. 9
10 CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT Activity I: Divide the class into 2 groups. Each group writes a list of ideas about classroom management. Socialize ideas with the whole class.
11 Prepares and plan the class before teaching it. Organizes the learning space, sets up the rules and routines. Adecquates language to the class (register). Varies interaction pattern (T-Ss, ss-ss, group). Provides ss with simple and straight-to-the- point instructions. Checks understanding with direct questions. Monitors and help the learners. Organizes the board (use coloured markers). CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
12 PROCEDURE Planning the class Learning styles FeedbackMPFActivities Redefining Activities Source: Spratt, Pulverness, Williams (2005)
13 Learning styles Learning styles are the ways in which a learner naturally prefers to take in, process and remember information and skills. Visual Auditory Kinaesthetic Group vs individual Reflective vs impulsive
14 Learning strategies Learning strategies are the ways chosen and used by the learner to learn a language. E.g.: Repeating new words in your head until you remember them. Guessing the meaning of unknown words Asking a speaker to repeat Recording yourself speaking Writing key words in order to remember Drawing meaning instead of translating.
Reading (receptive skill) Extensive reading Outside the classroom Authentic reading: newspaper, books, ads, booklets, brochures, flyers, magazines, internet articles and anything you can read. Intensive reading Within the classroom: Graded readings or authentic texts suitable for the classroom. 17
Reading (receptive skill) Reading for gist Reading for specific information Inferring 18 Subskills:
19 Listening (Receptive skill) Create interest Preteach vocab Listening for gist Listening for specific information Follow-up: working with the language Use this skill as a springboard to a productive one Source: TKT Essentials (2005)
20 Listening Extensive listening (outside the classroom) Intensive listening (within the classroom): Live listening: Reading aloud Story-telling Interviews Conversations Source: TKT Essentials (2005)
21 Writing (Productive skill) Subskills: using the right words, correct grammar and Spelling, Layout and puctuation, sentence and paragraph linking. Writing is both a process and a product Stages in the writing process: Brainstorming Making notes Planning Writing a draft Editing Proof reading Source: TKT Essentials (2005)
22 Speaking Interaction: 2-way communication uses language and body language. Fluency speaking at a normal speed, no hesitations, repetition or self correction. Accuracy speaking with correct forms of grammar, vocab and pronunciation. Source: TKT Essentials (2005)
Speaking activities Interviews Guessing games Jigsaw tasks: involves learners combining different pieces of information to form a whole. Ranking exercises Discussions Values clarification Problem solving activities Role plays Simulations 23
Types of Drilling Choral drill: learners repeat after teacher as a whole class, then in groups. Substitution drill: T gives a sentence and a different word or phrase the learners must use in the same place. E.g. If you go to Maturin you will see La Puerta de Miraflores. If you go to Maturin you will see el Baile del Mono. 24
Types of Drilling Transformation Drill: learners change the grammatical structure of the sentence given by the teacher according to which rule is being practised. E.g. I went to Margarita I didn´t go to Margarita I went to Del Valle Virgin Sanctuary I didn´t go to Del Valle Virgin Sanctuary etc. 25
27 MICROTEACHING Each group/pair prepares a microclass taking into consideration what we have practised. Use a template of lesson plan. Timing: 30 minutes per group/pair. Choose the skill, try to combine two or more. Choose activities which meets different learning styles.
28 Bibliografía Brown, D. (2007), Teaching by Principles, Pearson Longman Harmer, J. (2007). The Practice of English Language Teaching, Pearson-Longman. Oxford, R. (1989) ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics Washington, DC. Richards, J. and Rodgers,T. (2002). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching (Cambridge University Press). Spratt, M., Pulverness, A. and Williams, M., (2005) The Teacher´s Knowledge Test Course, TKT University of Cambridge. Thornburry, S. and Watkins, P. (200) The Certificate in English Language Teaching to Adults CELTA Course. University of Cambridge.