Learner differences Task: complete the table with the correct example and check your answers with a partner Learner difference Example Aged) How old is learner? Levelf) e.g. Beginner, elementary, intermediate, advanced Personalityb) e.g. quiet, shy, sociable Learning stylee) How the learner likes to learn Learning strategiesa) The ways a learner uses to learn Motivationg) How interested is s/he in learning Past learning experiencec) Has s/he learned English before?
Types of learning styles The four modalities* (originates from the work of Drs Bandler, R.and Grinder, J. in the Field of Neuro-Linguistic programming) Visual ( seeing) Auditory ( hearing) Kinaesthetic (moving) Tactile ( touching)*
Learning styles* Put each characteristic into one of the circles. Auditory Visual Kinaesthetic
Learning styles Visual Likes looking at pictures Remembers things by how they appeared on the page Likes organising things into lists Looks at the teachers face intently* Recognizes words by sight*
Learning styles Auditory Likes dialogues (discussions, plays etc.) Uses sounds and rhythm* to help remember Likes to talk about things Likes the teacher to provide verbal instructions
Learning styles Kinaesthetic Cant sit still for long Needs to be active ( as a memory aid*) Likes activities where they move around
Learning styles* Field-independent vs. Field- dependent Left-brain dominated vs. right-brain dominated McCarthys four learning styles - Innovative - Analytic - Common - Dynamic for more info:
Learning Strategies What are learning strategies? -Techniques which are used by good language learners, e.g., to help them understand new input, remember vocabulary, communicate effectively etc.
Learning Strategies Metacognitive ( knowing about knowing) are used to shape and control learning -Planning learning -Reviewing work -Assessing ones own performance -Forming hypotheses Cognitive (are task specific) -Classifying -Matching -Predicting -Sequencing
Brainstorm all the ways you can think for learning vocabulary. Think about the way you learn new words – how do you learn them? Write your ideas into the thought bubbles. Learning Strategies
Read words aloud and associate the sounds with words which have similar sounds Look at the word on context to understand the meaning and see what kinds words it s used with Define parts of speech and see if this is changeable Keep a vocabulary notebook with sound,context, synonyms, antonyms etc. Organising the entries in the vocabulary notebook according to a system e.g. alphabetical, according to topic, coursebook unit etc Use dictionaries to find out as much as you can about the word Draw illustrations Write dialogues or stories Write examples of how the word can be used in different contexts Travel with the vocabulary notebook, review on the way to school etc. Record words onto mp3\ cassette and listen Test yourself regularly Learning Strategies
Age-related learner differences Discuss the following statements. Do you associate them with children, teenagers, adults, with two of groups or all groups? Sometimes have short attention spans Motivated to learn for career reasons Need to have routines Cognitive skills are usually well developed Discipline problems usually not an issue Like to do activities involving movement May be shyer\ more reluctant to speak Able to concentrate for long periods Respond well to project work related to personal inerests Motor skills not fully developed May find it hard to keep still May be subject to mood changes
Previous language learning experience Group discussion What things did your teachers do that you found helpful helpful \ unhelpful? How do the effects of past experience influence learners( their styles, motivation and attitudes)?
Planning lessons for learners preferred learning styles Look at the activities and say which learning style they would suit. Remember that some activities can suit more than one learning style. Choose from these learning styles visual auditory kinaesthetic
Reflection Talk to each other about your own learning preferences Can you identify learning styles and learning strategies your colleagues use? How could you adapt this for finding out about the learning styles your classrooms?