Presentation on theme: "What Is Aggression? “Any form of behavior directed toward the goal of harming or injuring another living being who is motivated to avoid such treatment.”"— Presentation transcript:
1What Is Aggression?“Any form of behavior directed toward the goal of harming or injuring another living being who is motivated to avoid such treatment.”(Baron and Richardson, 1994)
2Criteria for Aggression (Violence) Aggression is a behavior.Aggression involves harm or injury.Aggression is directed toward another living organism (who doesn’t want pain).Aggression involves intent to harm.Aggression usually involves norm violation* “assertiveness” vs. violence
3Types of Aggression Hostile or reactive aggression The primary goal is to inflict injury or psychological harm to another.Instrumental aggressionAggression occurring in the quest of some competitive goal.
7Aggression in Sport Game reasoning and aggression Many athletes view aggression as inappropriate in general but appropriate in the sport environment. This is called “bracketed morality.”
8Aggression in Sport Athletic performance and aggression No clear pattern has been found, but professionals must decide if they value “winning at all costs” at the cost of increased aggression.
9Instinct Theory Causes of Aggression Individuals have an innate instinct to be aggressive, which builds up until it must be expressed (directly or via catharsis).[no support in sport]variant: “athletes have too much testosterone”
10Frustration– Aggression Theory Causes of AggressionFrustration– Aggression TheoryFrustration causes aggression.[no support]
11Social Learning Theory Causes of AggressionSocial Learning TheoryAggression is learned through observing others (modeling) and then having similar behavior reinforced.[supported]rivalry and retaliation…
12Revised Frustration– Aggression Theory Causes of AggressionRevised Frustration– Aggression TheoryCombines elements of the frustration-aggression theory with the social learning theory.[supported]
14Implications for Practice Recognize when aggression is most likely to occur—when individuals are frustrated and aroused, often because they– are losing,– perceive unfair officiating,– are embarrassed,– are physically in pain, or– are playing below capabilities.
15Implications for Practice Control aggression via stress or emotional-management training (logs; ABCs etc..)Keep winning in perspective.Distinguish between aggression (VIOLENCE) and assertive or intense play.Teach nonviolent conflict resolution skills.Teach appropriate behavior.(continued)
16Implications for Practice Control spectator aggression.1.Develop strict alcohol-control policies.2.Immediately penalize spectators for aggressive acts…legal charges?3.Hire officials who don’t tolerate aggression.4.Inform coaches that aggression won’t be tolerated.5.Work with media not to glorify aggressive acts. (no coverage)