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AQA A Level Examinations Physical Education Advanced GCE A2 2580 A2 Unit 3 Optimising performance and evaluating contemporary issues within sport Section.

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Presentation on theme: "AQA A Level Examinations Physical Education Advanced GCE A2 2580 A2 Unit 3 Optimising performance and evaluating contemporary issues within sport Section."— Presentation transcript:

1 AQA A Level Examinations Physical Education Advanced GCE A A2 Unit 3 Optimising performance and evaluating contemporary issues within sport Section B Psychological aspects that optimise performance C - Attitudes - aggression Jan Roscoe Publications

2 A2 Physical Education unit 3 Section B C: Psychological aspects 2 indexpreviousnext Attitudes - aggressionINDEX 33 - ATTITUDES 55 - FORMATION OF ATTITUDES 66 - COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDE - THE TRIADIC MODEL COGNITIVE / AFFECTIVE / BEHAVIOURAL 77 - PREJUDICE 88 - SPORT STEREOTYPES NEGATIVE STEREOTYPES POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ATTITUDES TO SPORT ATTITUDE CHANGE BY PERSUASION PERSUASIVE COMMUNICATION ATTITUDE CHANGE BY COGNITIVE DISSONANCE MEASUREMENT OF ATTITUDES OBSERVATION / QUESTIONNAIRES MEASUREMENT OF ATTITUDES PHYSIOLOGICAL TEST AGGRESSION AGGRESSION IN SPORT HOSTILE / INSTRUMENTAL AGGRESSION ASSERTION AND AGGRESSION ASSERTIVE PLAY CAUSES OF AGGRESSION UNDERDEVELOPED MORAL REASONING / BRACKETED MORALITY CAUSES OF AGGRESSION SPECIFIC CAUSES THEORIES OF AGGRESSION INSTINCT THEORY / FRUSTRATION AGGRESSION THEORY THEORIES OF AGGRESSION SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY / AGGRESSIVE CUE HYPOTHESIS RESPONSIBILITY FOR AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR PREVENTION OF AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR GOVERNING BODY PREVENTION OF AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR COACHES / PLAYERS

3 A2 Physical Education unit 3 Section B C: Psychological aspects 3 indexpreviousnext Attitudes - aggressionATTITUDES combinations of beliefs and feelings lead us to think and behave positively or negatively

4 A2 Physical Education unit 3 Section B C: Psychological aspects 4 indexpreviousnext Attitudes - aggression ATTITUDES IN SPORT ATTITUDES combinations of beliefs and feelings about: –objects –people –situations –(called attitude objects) this predisposes us to behave in a certain way towards them learned or organised through experience evaluative they lead us to think and behave positively or negatively about an attitude object tend to be deep seated and enduring but can change or be changed

5 A2 Physical Education unit 3 Section B C: Psychological aspects 5 indexpreviousnext Attitudes - aggression FORMATION OF ATTITUDES

6 A2 Physical Education unit 3 Section B C: Psychological aspects 6 indexpreviousnext Attitudes - aggression COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDE - THE TRIADIC MODEL

7 A2 Physical Education unit 3 Section B C: Psychological aspects 7 indexpreviousnext Attitudes - aggressionPREJUDICE PREJUDICE a prejudgement of a person, group, or situation usually based on inadequate information or inaccurate or biased information which reinforces stereotypes example: –women are often excluded from male dominated sports clubs or events

8 A2 Physical Education unit 3 Section B C: Psychological aspects 8 indexpreviousnext Attitudes - aggression SPORT STEREOTYPES NEGATIVE STEREOTYPES women in strength, endurance and contact sports participation of the disabled in physical activity older age groups interest and ability at sport participation of particular ethnic groups in specific sports or positions within teams examples: –the black quarterback in American Football –the black sprinter –the white skier / swimmer

9 A2 Physical Education unit 3 Section B C: Psychological aspects 9 indexpreviousnext Attitudes - aggression POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ATTITUDES TO SPORT POSITIVE ATTITUDES has a positive physical self- concept satisfaction from participation in sport believe sport promotes health success at sport willing to try new activities encouraged by significant others participates regularly opportunity to participate NEGATIVE ATTITUDES had negative experiences at sport have lifestyle which makes regular sport difficult find sport frustrating lack encouragement unlikely to participate in sport have a negative self-concept find sport boring

10 A2 Physical Education unit 3 Section B C: Psychological aspects 10 indexpreviousnext Attitudes - aggression ATTITUDE CHANGE BY PERSUASION PERSUASIVE COMMUNICATION the person must –pay attention –understand –accept –retain –the message being given the coach must –be expert –be trustworthy the message must –be clear –be unambiguous –be balanced between emotion and logic –be balanced between pros and cons

11 A2 Physical Education unit 3 Section B C: Psychological aspects 11 indexpreviousnext Attitudes - aggression ATTITUDE CHANGE BY COGNITIVE DISSONANCE COGNITIVE DISSONANCE the person must be consistent between –cognitive –affective –behavioural components the person must be consistent between different elements cognitive dissonance occurs hence attitudes must change –if two factual elements of attitude conflict –example: the smoker who knows that smoking is bad for health Fabien Barthez (ex Man U goalie) seen smoking!!

12 A2 Physical Education unit 3 Section B C: Psychological aspects 12 indexpreviousnext Attitudes - aggression EVALUATION / MEASUREMENT OF ATTITUDES BY OBSERVATION related to actual events as they are happening difficult to quantify or measure open to interpretation by observer QUESTIONNAIRES only as good as the questions asked measurable using –Thurstone scale –Likert scale –Osgoods Semantic Differential Scale good attitudes are important?

13 A2 Physical Education unit 3 Section B C: Psychological aspects 13 indexpreviousnext Attitudes - aggression EVALUATION / MEASUREMENT OF ATTITUDES USING PHYSIOLOGICAL TESTS indicators such as –blood pressure –skin conductivity –brain activity (ECG) can be interpreted to indicate telling the truth –about an attitude object measurable independent of observer but takes a long time to set up requiring special apparatus

14 A2 Physical Education unit 3 Section B C: Psychological aspects 14 indexpreviousnext Attitudes - aggressionAGGRESSION intent to harm - not necessarily physical sporting aggression can be verbal or by gesture / body-language

15 A2 Physical Education unit 3 Section B C: Psychological aspects 15 indexpreviousnext Attitudes - aggression AGGRESSION IN SPORT HOSTILE AGGRESSION intent to harm goal is to harm arousal and anger involved INSTRUMENTAL AGGRESSION intent to harm goal to win used as a tactic dirty play no anger illegal in all sports except boxing

16 A2 Physical Education unit 3 Section B C: Psychological aspects 16 indexpreviousnext Attitudes - aggression ASSERTION AND AGGRESSION ASSERTIVE PLAY has: no intent to harm legitimate force within the rules unusual effort unusual energy sometimes called channelled aggression

17 A2 Physical Education unit 3 Section B C: Psychological aspects 17 indexpreviousnext Attitudes - aggression CAUSES OF AGGRESSION PHYSIOLOGICAL AROUSAL anger towards another person causing an increase in arousal highly motivated UNDERDEVELOPED MORAL REASONING players with low levels of moral reasoning more likely to be aggressive BRACKETED MORALITY double standard condoning aggressive behaviour may retard players moral development aggression is wrong in life, but OK in sport

18 A2 Physical Education unit 3 Section B C: Psychological aspects 18 indexpreviousnext Attitudes - aggression CAUSES OF AGGRESSION SPECIFIC CAUSES high environmental temperature home or away embarrassmentlosingpain unfair officiating playing below capability large score difference low league standing later stage of play (near the end of a game) reputation of opposition (get your retaliation in first)

19 A2 Physical Education unit 3 Section B C: Psychological aspects 19 indexpreviousnext Attitudes - aggression THEORIES OF AGGRESSION INSTINCT THEORY this theory says that aggression is innate and instinctive caused by survival of the species sport releases built up aggression catharsis is the displacement of aggression by releasing tension through an alternative activity (in this case sport) DOLLARDS FRUSTRATION-AGGRESSION THEORY this theory says that aggression is caused by frustration the person being blocked in the achievement of a goal this causes a drive towards the source of frustration for example, a player smashing his racket on the ground during a losing tennis match

20 A2 Physical Education unit 3 Section B C: Psychological aspects 20 indexpreviousnext Attitudes - aggression THEORIES OF AGGRESSION SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY aggression is learned by observation of others behaviour then imitation of this aggressive behaviour this is then reinforced by social acceptance of the behaviour Bandura AGGRESSIVE CUE HYPOTHESIS frustration causes anger and arousal this creates a readiness for aggression which can be initiated by an incident during the performance (the cue) this is a learned response example: a player sees a colleague fouled then decides to join in Berkowitz

21 A2 Physical Education unit 3 Section B C: Psychological aspects 21 indexpreviousnext Attitudes - aggression RESPONSIBILITY FOR AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR

22 A2 Physical Education unit 3 Section B C: Psychological aspects 22 indexpreviousnext Attitudes - aggression PREVENTION OF AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR GOVERNING BODY code of conduct –coaches –players –officials use of strong officials use of rules of games –punishment (remove league points) –sin bins –reward non-aggressive acts (FIFA fair play award) use of language –reduce media sensationalism coach education programme

23 A2 Physical Education unit 3 Section B C: Psychological aspects 23 indexpreviousnext Attitudes - aggression PREVENTION OF AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR COACHES / PLAYERS should: promote ethical behaviour promote sporting behaviour control aggressive behaviour stress management strategies / relaxation techniques self control strategies reduce levels of arousal maintain a healthy will to win without winning being everything set performance goals rather than outcome goals remove players from field if at risk of aggression enable channelling of aggression towards a performance goal use peer pressure avoid letting the side down


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