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BUSINESS DRIVEN TECHNOLOGY Plug-In T1 Hardware and Software.

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Presentation on theme: "BUSINESS DRIVEN TECHNOLOGY Plug-In T1 Hardware and Software."— Presentation transcript:

1 BUSINESS DRIVEN TECHNOLOGY Plug-In T1 Hardware and Software

2 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-2 LEARNING OUTCOMES 1.Define the two basic categories of technology: hardware and software 2.Describe the six major categories of hardware 3.Describe the seven categories of computers by size 4.Define the two types of software

3 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-3 LEARNING OUTCOMES 5.Describe the role of the operating system and utility software 6.Compare the uses of vertical and horizontal market software 7.List the common input, output, storage, and telecommunication devices

4 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-4 Introduction Information technology (IT) is any computer-based tool that: – People use to work with information – Support the information and information-processing needs of an organization The core chapters introduced many concepts regarding hardware and software This plug-in presents many of the technologies associated with both hardware and software

5 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-5 The Basics of Hardware and Software Hardware – physical aspects of computers, telecommunications, and other information technology devices – Example: Keyboard, monitor Software -a general term for the various kinds of programs used to operate computers and related devices – Example: Microsoft Excel

6 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-6 The Basics of Hardware and Software Six categories of hardware: 1.Input device 2.Output device 3.Storage device 4.Central processing unit (CPU) 5.Telecommunications device 6.Connecting device

7 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-7 The Basics of Hardware and Software Two main types of software: 1. Application software - software used to solve specific problems or perform specific tasks 2. System software - handles tasks specific to technology management and coordinates the interaction of all technology devices Operating system software - supports the application software and manages how the hardware devices work together Utility software - provides additional functionality to the operating system

8 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-8 COMPUTER CATEGORIES Personal digital assistant ( PDA ) - a small hand-held computer that performs simple tasks

9 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-9 COMPUTER CATEGORIES Notebook computer - a fully functional computer designed to be carried around and run on battery power Tablet computer - a pen-based computer that provides the screen capabilities of a PDA with the functional capabilities of a notebook or a desktop computer

10 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Desktop computer - the most popular choice for personal computing needs Minicomputer - designed to meet the computing needs of several people simultaneously in a small to medium- size business environment Mainframe computer - designed to meet the computing needs of hundreds of people in a large business environment COMPUTER CATEGORIES

11 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Supercomputers - the fastest, most powerful, and most expensive type of computer COMPUTER CATEGORIES

12 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Software Software contains the instructions that the hardware executes to perform an information processing task Without the aid of software, the computer (e.g. hardware) is useless Two categories of software: 1.Application 2.System

13 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Application software is used for specific information processing needs, including: – Payroll – Customer relationship management – Project management – Training – Word processing and many others APPLICATION SOFTWARE

14 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved APPLICATION SOFTWARE Personal productivity software - used to perform personal tasks such as writing a memo, creating a graph, or creating a slide presentation Examples: – Microsoft Word – Microsoft Excel – Internet Explorer – Quicken

15 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved APPLICATION SOFTWARE Vertical market software - application software that is unique to a particular industry – Patient-scheduling software – Nursing allocation software Horizontal market software - general enough to be suitable for use in a variety of industries – Inventory management software – Payroll software

16 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved SYSTEM SOFTWARE System software controls how the various technology tools work together along with the application software Two basic categories: 1.Operating System 2.Utility

17 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved SYSTEM SOFTWARE Operating system software controls application software and manages how THE hardware devices work together – Microsoft Windows 2000 Pro – Microsoft Windows 2000 ME – Microsoft Windows XP Home – Microsoft Windows XP Pro – Mac OS – Linux Multitasking - allows more than one piece of software to be used at a time

18 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Utility software adds additional functionality to the operating system Types of utility software: – Crash-proof software – Uninstaller software – Disk optimization software – Spyware software Utility software

19 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Hardware Binary digit ( bit ) - the smallest unit of information that a computer can process ASCII ( American Standard Code for Information Interchange ) - the coding system that most personal computers use to represent, process, and store information Byte - a group of eight bits

20 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved COMMON INPUT DEVICES Input device is a tool used to capture information and commands Examples include: – Keyboard – Point-of-sale (POS) – Microphone – Mouse – Pointing stick – Touch pad – Touch screen – Bar code reader – Optical mark recognition (OMR) – Scanner

21 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved COMMON OUTPUT DEVICES Output device is equipment used to see, hear, or otherwise accept the results of information processing Monitors – Cathode-ray tubes (CRTs) – Flat-panel displays – Liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors – Gas plasma displays Pixels - the dots that make up an image on the computer screen

22 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved COMMON OUTPUT DEVICES Printers – Inkjet printers - make images by forcing ink droplets through nozzles – Laser printers - form images using an electrostatic process, the same way a photocopier works – Multifunction printers - scan, copy, and fax, as well as print

23 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved COMMON OUTPUT DEVICES Central Processing Unit (CPU) - the actual hardware that interprets and executes the program (software) instructions and coordinates how all the other hardware devices work together

24 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved COMMON OUTPUT DEVICES Random Access Memory (RAM) - temporary storage that holds the current information, the application software currently being used, and the operating system software – Megahertz (MHz) - the number of millions of CPU cycles per second – Gigahertz (GHz) - the number of billions of CPU cycles per second

25 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved A CPU contains two primary parts: 1.Control unit 2.Arithmetic/logic unit Control unit - interprets software instructions and literally tells the other hardware devices what to do, based on the software instructions Arithmetic/logic unit (ALU) - performs all arithmetic operations (for example, addition, and subtraction) and all logic operations (such as sorting and comparing numbers) Characteristics of CPUs and RAM

26 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved COMMON STORAGE DEVICES Start

27 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved COMMON STORAGE DEVICES Two questions to ask about storage devices: 1.Is updating or modifying the information an option? 2.How much information needs to be stored? Storage device capacities are measured in terms of bytes including gigabytes, and terabytes – Gigabyte (GB) is roughly 1 billion characters – Terabyte (TB) is roughly 1 trillion bytes

28 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Storage capacity COMMON STORAGE DEVICES

29 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved COMMON STORAGE DEVICES Start

30 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved COMMON STORAGE DEVICES Common storage devices include: – High-capacity floppy disk – Hard disk – CD-ROM (compact disc - read-only memory) – CD-R (compact disc-recordable) – CD-RW (compact disc-rewritable) – DVD-ROM – DVD-R – DVD-RW or DVD+RW – Flash memory device – Memory card

31 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved TELECOMMUNICATIONS DEVICES Types of modems include: – Telephone modems (dial-up) – Cable modems – Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) modems – Wireless modems – Satellite modems

32 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved TELECOMMUNICATIONS DEVICES Modem speed comparisons

33 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Communication software includes: – Connectivity software - enables a computer to “dial up” or connect to another computer – Web browser software - enables a computer to surf the Web – software - enables electronic communication with other people by sending and receiving TELECOMMUNICATIONS DEVICES

34 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved CONNECTING DEVICES Connecting devices enable the hardware to communicate with each other – A parallel connector is used to plug a printer into a system box – Parallel connector interfaces with a parallel port that is connected to an expansion card

35 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Busses, Expansion Slots, and Expansion Cards Expansion bus - moves information from the CPU and RAM to all of the other hardware devices Expansion slot - a long skinny socket on the motherboard into which an expansion card is inserted Expansion card - a circuit board that is inserted into an expansion slot

36 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Ports - simply the plug-ins found on the outside of the system box (usually in the back) into which a connector is plugged into Popular connectors include: – USB ( universal serial bus ) – Serial connector – Parallel connector Ports and Connectors

37 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Infrared also called IR or IrDA (infrared data association ) - uses red light to send and receive information Bluetooth - standard for transmitting information in the form of short range radio waves over distances of up to 30 feet and is used for purposes such as wirelessly connecting a cell phone or a PDA to a computer WiFi ( wireless fidelity ) - standard for transmitting information in the form of radio waves over distances up to about 300 feet Wireless Connection

38 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Wireless Connection Wireless comparison chart


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