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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, All Rights Reserved BUSINESS PLUG-IN B3 Hardware and Software.

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Presentation on theme: "McGraw-Hill/Irwin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, All Rights Reserved BUSINESS PLUG-IN B3 Hardware and Software."— Presentation transcript:

1 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, All Rights Reserved BUSINESS PLUG-IN B3 Hardware and Software

2 B3-2 LEARNING OUTCOMES 1.Describe the six major categories of hardware and provide an example of each 2.Identify the different computer categories and explain their potential business uses 3.Explain the difference between primary and secondary storage

3 B3-3 LEARNING OUTCOMES 4.List the common input, output, storage, and communication devices 5.Describe the eight categories of computers by size 6.Define the relationship between operating system software and utility software

4 B3-4 INTRODUCTION Information technology (IT) - any computer-based tool that people use to work with information and support the information and information-processing needs of an organization –Hardware - consists of the physical devices associated with a computer system –Software - the set of instructions that the hardware executes to carry out specific tasks

5 B3-5 Hardware Basics Computer - an electronic device operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory that can accept, manipulate, and store data Hardware components 1.Central processing unit (CPU) 2.Primary storage 3.Secondary storage 4.Input device 5.Output device 6.Communication device

6 B3-6 Hardware Basics

7 B3-7 Central Processing Unit Central processing unit (CPU) (or microprocessor) - the actual hardware that interprets and executes the program (software) instructions and coordinates how all the other hardware devices work together Control unit - interprets software instructions and literally tells the other hardware devices what to do, based on the software instructions Arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) - performs all arithmetic operations (for example, addition and subtraction) and all logic operations (such as sorting and comparing numbers)

8 B3-8 Central Processing Unit The number of CPU cycles per second determines the speed of a CPU –Megahertz (MHz) - the number of millions of CPU cycles per second –Gigahertz (GHz) - the number of billions of CPU cycles per second

9 B3-9 Central Processing Unit CPU speed factors –Clock speed –Word length –Bus width –Chip line width Binary digit (bit) - the smallest unit of information that a computer can process Byte - a group of eight bits representing one natural language character

10 B3-10 ADVANCES IN CPU DESIGN Complex instruction set computer (CISC) chip - type of CPU that can recognize as many as 100 or more instructions, enough to carry out most computations directly Reduced instruction set computer (RISC) chip - limit the number of instructions the CPU can execute to increase processing speed Virtualization - a protected memory space created by the CPU allowing the computer to create virtual machines

11 B3-11 Primary Storage Primary storage - the computer’s main memory, which consists of the random access memory (RAM), cache memory, and the read-only memory (ROM) that is directly accessible to the CPU

12 B3-12 RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY (RAM) Random access memory (RAM) - the computer’s primary working memory, in which program instructions and data are stored so that they can be accessed directly by the CPU via the processor’s high-speed external data bus –Volatility –Cache memory

13 B3-13 RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY (RAM)

14 B3-14 READ ONLY MEMORY (ROM) Read-only memory (ROM) - the portion of a computer’s primary storage that does not lose its contents when one switches off the power –Flash memory –Memory card –Memory stick

15 B3-15 Secondary Storage Secondary storage - consists of equipment designed to store large volumes of data for long-term storage –Megabyte (MB or M or Meg) - roughly 1 million bytes –Gigabyte (GB) - roughly 1 billion bytes –Terabyte (TB) - roughly 1 trillion bytes

16 B3-16 Secondary Storage

17 B3-17 Magnetic Medium Magnetic medium - a secondary storage medium that uses magnetic techniques to store and retrieve data on disks or tapes coated with magnetically sensitive materials Magnetic tape - an older secondary storage medium that uses a strip of thin plastic coated with a magnetically sensitive recording medium Hard drive - a secondary storage medium that uses several rigid disks coated with a magnetically sensitive material and housed together with the recording heads in a hermetically sealed mechanism

18 B3-18 Optical Medium Optical medium types include: –Compact disk-read-only memory (CD-ROM) –Compact disk-read-write (CD-RW) drive –Digital video disk (DVD) –DVD-ROM drive –Digital video disk-read/write (DVD-RW)

19 B3-19 INPUT DEVICES Input device - equipment used to capture information and commands –Manual input device Joystick Keyboard Microphone –Automated input device Bar code scanner Digital camera Magnetic ink character reader

20 B3-20 OUTPUT DEVICE Output device - equipment used to see, hear, or otherwise accept the results of information processing requests –Cathode-ray tube (CRT) –Liquid crystal display (LCD) –Laser printer –Ink-jet printer –Plotter

21 B3-21 Communication Device Communication device - equipment used to send information and receive it from one location to another –Dial-up access –Cable –Digital subscriber line –Wireless –Satellite

22 B3-22 Computer Categories For the past 20 years, federally funded supercomputing research has given birth to some of the computer industry’s most significant technology breakthroughs including: –Clustering –Parallel processing –Mosaic browser

23 B3-23 Computer Categories Computer categories include: –Personal digital assistant (PDA) –Laptop –Tablet –Desktop –Workstation –Minicomputer –Mainframe computer –Supercomputer

24 B3-24 Software Basics System software - controls how the various technology tools work together along with the application software –Operating system software –Utility software –Application software

25 B3-25 Utility Software Types of utility software –Crash-proof –Disk image –Disk optimization –Encrypt data –File and data recovery –Text protect –Preventative security –Spyware –Uninstaller

26 B3-26 Application Software Types of application software –Bowser –Communication –Data management –Desktop publishing – –Groupware –Presentation graphics –Programming –Spreadsheet –Word processing

27 B3-27 CLOSING CASE ONE Changing Circuits at Circuit City Circuit City was doing so well in the 1990s that business consultant Jim Collins, in his best seller Good to Great, wrote: “From 1982 to 1999, Circuit City generated cumulative stock returns 22 times better than the market, handily beating Intel, Wal-Mart, GE, Hewlett- Packard and Coca-Cola” Today, Circuit City is in a markedly different position

28 B3-28 CLOSING CASE ONE QUESTIONS 1.How would anticipating Best Buy’s growth have helped Circuit City remain as an industry leader? 2.Why is keeping up with technology critical to a global company such as Circuit City? 3.Highlight some of the potential risks facing Circuit City’s new business model 4.Why is Circuit City benefiting from implementing strategic product placement techniques?

29 B3-29 CLOSING CASE TWO Electronic Breaking Points What happens when someone accidentally spills a cup of hot coffee on a laptop, puts a USB memory key in a washing machine, or drops an iPod in the sand? How much abuse can electronic products take and keep on working? PC World tested several products to determine their breaking points

30 B3-30 CLOSING CASE TWO QUESTIONS 1.Identify six hardware categories and place each product listed in the case in its appropriate category 2.Describe the CPU and identify which products would use a CPU 3.Describe the relationship between memory sticks and laptops. How can a user employ one to help protect information loss from the other? 4.Identify the different types of software each of the products listed in the case might use


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